<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>0</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>6406</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Amati,G.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Ounis,I.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2000</YEAR><TITLE>Conceptual Graphs and First Order Logic</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED> The Computer Journal, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2000 </PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>Oxford University Press</PUBLISHER><PAGES>1-12</PAGES><ISBN>0010-4620</ISBN><LABEL>Amati:2000:6406</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>conceptual graphs</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>We study Sowa's conceptual graphs (CGs) with both existential and universal quantifiers. We explore in detail the existential fragment. We extend and modify Sowa's original graph derivation system with new rules and prove the soundness and completeness theorem with respect to Sowa's standard interpretation of CGs into first order logic (FOL). The proof is obtained by reducing the graph derivation to a question-answering problem. The graph derivation can be equivalently obtained by querying a Definite Horn Clauses Program by a conjunction of positive atoms. Moreover, the proof provides an algorithm for graph derivation in a pure proof theoretic fashion, namely by means of a slight enhancement of the standard PROLOG interpreter. The graph derivation can be rebuilt step-by-step and constructively from the resolution-based proof. We provide a notion of CGs in normal form (the table of the conceptual graph) and show that the PROLOG interpreter gives also a projection algorithm between normal CGs. The normal forms are obtained by extending the FOL language by witnesses (new constants) and extending the graph derivation system. By applying iteratively a set of rules the reduction process terminates with the normal form of a conceptual graph. We also show that graph derivation can be reduced to a question-answering problem in propositional datalog for a subclass of simple CGs. The embedding into propositional datalog makes the complexity of the derivation polynomial. </ABSTRACT><URL>http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_43/Issue_01/</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>