<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>3</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>7566</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Patterson,J.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Boehm,C.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2001</YEAR><TITLE>CIRCUS for Beginners</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>Proceedings CIRCUS Conference 2001</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>N/A</PUBLISHER><PAGES>182 - 193</PAGES><ISBN>ISBN 0 8 526 1746</ISBN><LABEL>Patterson:2001:7566</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>ESPRIT Working Group Artists Technologists Creative Pull culture interdisciplinarity</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>This paper describes CIRCUS, its origins, its main concerns, and a high- level view of some of its conclusions. One of the main issues was the way in which topics with their origins in the internationally misunderstood idea of "culture" tended to predominate. While we take the view that our idea of culture is indivisible there are nonetheless subcultures, which seem to understand their own niches but little else, within it. One source of cultural clashing which some observers tended to minimise was that between practice-based disciplines and knowledge-based disciplines.We make a particular example of the rise of the subculture which surrounds music technology, a new discipline within an old arts-and-humanities one. Music technology, which is more like computer science than, say, musicology, is now more likely to be found in engineering and computer science departments than in music departments despite the fact that it is a classical practice-oriented discipline with more structural similarities to design than computer science. The explanation is entirely to be found in the unexpected consequences of the way in which the subject is funded. A major concern of CIRCUS has been the topic of "creative pull" which is our favoured method of developing relevant technology for use by arts-based practitioners. Briefly "creative pull" involves the development of relevant technology for furthering a creative practice-based project, so artists are in control and technologists derive their necessary insights from creative need rather than their own overheated imaginings. We give some detail as to how "creative pull" could be used to progress topics like nonphotorealistic rendering which have so far been driven largely by technological agendas. Finally we discuss the vertical market model and show that many creative projects, particularly film projects, can effectively define an entire market for goods branded by the original film. These include pedagogical aids and knowledge packaged as a commodity, which in turn generates its own issues. A coherent model of creative pull can thus have a quite significant effect on geographically localised cultures and help to internationalise them.</ABSTRACT></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>