<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>3</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>7803</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Johnson,C.W.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Dell,W.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2003</YEAR><TITLE>The Limitations of 3D Audio to Improve Auditory Cues in Aircraft Cockpits</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>In G. Einarsson and B. Fletcher (eds), International Systems Safety Conference 2003 </PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>N/A</PUBLISHER><PAGES>990-999</PAGES><ISBN>0-9721385-2-8</ISBN><LABEL>Johnson:2003:7803</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>Accidents</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>Several organizations, including the FAA and NASA, have sponsored research projects into the use of spatialised audio as a means of improving warnings in commercial aircraft. Other research groups, including the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation, have explored the use of these techniques within military aviation. A common factor across all of this work is an apparent enthusiasm for the potential benefits of this technology. In contrast, this paper describes the problems that were encountered when attempting to derive empirical evidence for the benefits of 3D auditory cues in aircraft cockpits. Benefits were identified for the stereo presentation of auditory information but it was far harder to demonstrate any additional support for the use of more sophisticated techniques. The second half of this paper extends our investigation beyond the laboratory to examine pragmatic barriers that frustrate the introduction of this technology. These range from the problems of integrating cockpit warning systems through to an apparent confusion in the recommended practices for headphone use in Europe and North America. </ABSTRACT></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>