<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>0</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>7809</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Johnson,C.W.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2004</YEAR><TITLE>A Note on Two Causal Analysis Techniques for Electrical, Electronic or Programmable Electronic Systems</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>In IChemE Loss Prevention Bulletin, Journal of the Institute of Chemical Engineers, Number 175 </PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>N/A</PUBLISHER><PAGES>16-29</PAGES><LABEL>Johnson:2004:7809</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>61508</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>This paper presents two techniques that have been developed to support the analysis of mishaps involving electrical, electronic or programmable electronic systems (E/E/PES) under an HSE sponsored project. One provides a low-cost and lightweight approach that is appropriate for low consequence events. It is based around a flowchart that prompts investigators to identify potential causal factors through a series of questions. The second approach is more complex and is, therefore, more appropriate for incidents that have greater potential consequences or a higher likelihood of recurrence. It uses Events and Causal Factors (ECF) modelling together with particular forms of causal reasoning developed by the US Department of Energy (1992). Both approaches map causal factors back to the lifecycle phases and common requirements described in the IEC 61508 standard. This provides an important bridge from the products of mishap analysis to the design and operation of future safety-critical systems. Our techniques are likely to identify incidents that cannot easily be attributed to lifecycle phases or common requirements in IEC 61508. The link between constructive design standards and analytical investigation techniques can, therefore, yield insights into the limitations of these standards. An implicit motivation in our work is to provide the feedback mechanisms that are necessary to improve the application of standards, such as IEC 61508 and DO-178B. </ABSTRACT></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>