<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>3</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>8015</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Brown,L.M.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Brewster,S.A.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Purchase,H.C.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2005</YEAR><TITLE>A first investigation into the effectiveness of Tactons.</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>In Proceedings of WorldHaptics 2005 (Pisa, Italy). IEEE Press</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>IEEE Computer Society Press</PUBLISHER><PAGES>167-176</PAGES><ISBN>0-7695-2310-2</ISBN><LABEL>Brown:2005:8015</LABEL><ABSTRACT>This paper reports two experiments relating to the design of Tactons (or tactile icons). The first experiment investigated perception of vibro-tactile "roughness" (created using amplitude modulated sinusoids), and the results indicated that roughness could be used as a parameter for constructing Tactons. The second experiment is the first full evaluation of Tactons, and uses three values of roughness identified in the first experiment, along with three rhythms to create a set of Tactons. The results of this experiment showed that Tactons could be a successful means of communicating information in user interfaces, with an overall recognition rate of 71%, and recognition rates of 93% for rhythm and 80% for roughness.</ABSTRACT><URL>http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~stephen/papers/WorldHaptics_Brown.pdf</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>