<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>3</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>8143</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Johnson,C.W.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2006</YEAR><TITLE>Linate and Uberlingen: Understanding the Role that Public Policy Plays in the Failure of Air Traffic Management Systems</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>Proceedings of the ENEA International Workshop on Complex Networks and Infrastructure Protection</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>N/A</PUBLISHER><PAGES>508-519</PAGES><LABEL>Johnson:2006:8143</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>Safety</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>The terrorist attacks of September 2001 had significant economic effects on the aviation industries. Passenger numbers fells across many countries and several large carriers were threatened with bankruptcy. More recently, there has been a gradual recovery. This has renewed concern that the rising volume of traffic will lead to an increase in the total number of safety-related incidents as accident rates have remained stable. This creates a “wicked problem”. How can we further reduce the rate of very rare events before there is any rise in the total number of the accidents and incident? There are no panaceas but it seems clear that we must identify any common factors that occur between the relatively small numbers of adverse events that occur each year. This paper, therefore, shows how violations and vulnerability (V2) analysis can be applied to identify similar causes in the Linate runway incursion and the Überlingen mid-air collision. Both stemmed from underlying problems in theSafety Management Systems that are designed to protect the European Air Traffic Management (ATM) infrastructure.</ABSTRACT><URL>http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~johnson/papers/Linate/Chris_W_Johnson_Ueberlingen_Linate.pdf</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>