<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>0</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>8634</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Ayoub,A.F.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Xiao,Y.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Khambay,B.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Siebert,J.P.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Hadley,D.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2007</YEAR><TITLE>Towards building a photo-realistic virtual human face for craniomaxillofacial diagnosis and treatment planning</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Issue 5, May 2007.</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>N/A</PUBLISHER><PAGES>423-428</PAGES><LABEL>Ayoub:2007:8634</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>stereophotogrammetry; 3D CTscan; superimposition; orthognathic planning</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>The aim of this investigation was to assess the feasibility of building a virtual human face digitally by superimposing a photo-realistic three-dimensional (3D) soft-tissue surface on bone in the correct relationship and evaluating the registration errors associated with this method. The 3D soft-tissue surface of the face was captured using a fast stereophotogrammetry method and the underlying bone was recorded using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scanner. Using the Procrustes registration method, the outer surface of the 3D CT scan and the photorealistic soft-tissue surfaces were merged into a single Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) file and displayed using a standard VRML viewer. Quantitative measurements of registration errors were calculated in the reconstructed human head models using the signed closest point distance from the photo-realistic skin surface to the transformed CT skin surface. The registration errors between most parts of the aligned surfaces were within 1.5 mm. The errors were relatively large around the eyebrows, eyelids and cheeks. Simultaneous recording of the face and skull may reduce this error.</ABSTRACT><URL>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6WGW-4NFXGBM-1-C&_cdi=6833&_user=121723&_orig=search&_coverDate=05%2F31</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>