<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>3</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>8832</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Johnson,C.W.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Holloway,C.M.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2007</YEAR><TITLE>A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>F. Redmill and T. Anderson (eds.), The Safety of Systems: Proceedings of the 15th Safety-Critical Systems Symposium, Springer, London UK</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>Springer</PUBLISHER><PAGES>85-104</PAGES><ISBN>978-1-84628-805-0</ISBN><LABEL>Johnson:2007:8832</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>Maritime Safety</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.</ABSTRACT><URL>http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~johnson/papers/Chris_Michael_Longitudinal_Maritime.pdf</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>