<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>0</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>8843</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Johnson,C.W.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2008</YEAR><TITLE>Using Evacuation Simulations to Ensure the Safety and Security of the 2012 Olympic Venues</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>Safety Science, Volume 46, Number 2.</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>Elsevier Science</PUBLISHER><PAGES>302-322</PAGES><LABEL>Johnson:2008:8843</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>Security</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>In July 2005, London was awarded the right to host the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The decision of the International Olympic Committee triggered considerable public enthusiasm across the UK. At the same time, it also created a host of logistical and technical challenges. Amongst these the first concern is to ensure the safety and security of competitors and of the public. This paper extends ‘lessons learned’ techniques to analyze security incidents at previous Games. Although these are very different from more conventional health and safety mishaps, the background of technical problems, human error and organizational failure are very familiar. This analysis of previous incidents is used to identify key issues that complicate the organization of Olympic events. For example, there is a danger that concern over previous incidents, such as the Munich attack or the Atlanta bombing, will obscure other forms of attack. Conversely, it is difficult to validate risk-based approaches that consider the likelihood of threats which have yet to be realized. The closing sections argue that computer simulation techniques can be used early in planning to help envisage those scenarios that compromise the safety and security of Olympic events. They can also be used closer to the Games, as training tools to rehearse key tactics and standard operating procedures before live drills are conducted.</ABSTRACT><NOTES>'Selected paper' from WoS conference for journal publication.</NOTES><URL>http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~johnson/papers/WOS/Olympics_Chris_W_Johnson.pdf</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>