<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>3</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>9220</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Johnson,C.W.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Shea,C.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Holloway,C.M.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2008</YEAR><TITLE>The Role of Trust and Interaction in GPS Related Accidents: A Human Factors Safety Assessment of the Global Positioning System (GPS)</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>GPS; human error; accident analysis; organisational safety</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>System Safety Society</PUBLISHER><ISBN>0-9721385-8-7</ISBN><LABEL>Johnson:2008:9220</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>GPS; human error; accident analysis; organisational safety</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of orbiting and geostationary satellites to calculate the position of a receiver over time. This technology has revolutionised a wide range of safety-critical industries and leisure applications ranging from commercial fisheries through to mountain running. These systems provide diverse benefits; supplementing the users existing navigation skills and reducing the uncertainty that often characterises many route planning tasks. GPS applications can also help to reduce workload by automating tasks that would otherwise require finite cognitive and perceptual resources. However, the operation of these systems has been identified as a contributory factor in a range of recent accidents. Users often come to rely on GPS applications and, therefore, fail to notice when they develop faults or when errors occur in the other systems that use the data from these systems. Further accidents can stem from the ‘over confidence’ that arises when users assume automated warnings will be issued when they stray from an intended route. Unless greater attention is paid to the human factors of GPS applications then there is a danger that we will see an increasing number of these failures as positioning technologies are integrated into increasing numbers of applications.</ABSTRACT><URL>http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~johnson/papers/GPS/Johnson_Shea_Holloway_GPS.pdf</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>