<XML><RECORDS><RECORD><REFERENCE_TYPE>0</REFERENCE_TYPE><REFNUM>9304</REFNUM><AUTHORS><AUTHOR>Castagna,G.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Gesbert,N.</AUTHOR><AUTHOR>Padovani,L.</AUTHOR></AUTHORS><YEAR>2009</YEAR><TITLE>A Theory of Contracs for Web Services</TITLE><PLACE_PUBLISHED>ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. 31, No 5.</PLACE_PUBLISHED><PUBLISHER>ACM Press</PUBLISHER><PAGES>19:1-19:61</PAGES><ISBN>0164-0925</ISBN><LABEL>Castagna:2009:9304</LABEL><KEYWORDS><KEYWORD>Web services</KEYWORD></KEYWORDS<ABSTRACT>Contracts are behavioral descriptions of Web services. We devise a theory of contracts that formalizes the compatibility of a client to a service, and the safe replacement of a service with another service. The use of contracts statically ensures the successful completion of every possible interaction between compatible clients and services. The technical device that underlies the theory is the filter, which is an explicit coercion preventing some possible behaviors of services and, in doing so, makes services compatible with diff erent usage scenarios. We show that filters can be seen as proofs of a sound and complete subcontracting deduction system which simultaneously refi nes and extends Hennessy's classical axiomatization of the must testing preorder. The relation is decidable and the decision algorithm is obtained via a cut-elimination process that proves the coherence of subcontracting as a logical system. Despite the richness of the technical development, the resulting approach is based on simple ideas and basic intuitions. Remarkably, its application is mostly independent of the language used to program the services or the clients. We outline the practical aspects of our theory by studying two diff erent concrete syntaxes for contracts and applying each of them to Web services languages. We also explore implementation issues of filters and discuss the perspectives of future research this work opens.</ABSTRACT><NOTES>Supersedes the article in POPL'08</NOTES><URL>http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1538917.1538920</URL></RECORD></RECORDS></XML>