Text Entry

The Unigesture Approach
Abstract: The rise of small modern handhelds mandates innovation in user input techniques. Researchers have turned to tilt-based interfaces as a possible alternative for the stylus and keyboard. We have implemented Unigesture, a tilt-to-write system that enables one-handed text entry

The Finger-Joint Gesture Wearable Keypad Abstract: A wearable, fragmentised, idiomatic, generic and mobile keypad concept, making use of well-established metaphors, is suggested for entering digits and characters. The "Finger-Joint Gesture Wearable Keypad" terminal utilises the inside of the phalanges of the fingers as a wearable telephone keypad. Negligible training time is required. By employing the thumb as an operator, depressing the insides of the finger's phalanges, the familiar keypad digits and characters are created. By generating...

Mobile Text Entry
Abstract: There has been a substantial growth in interest in mobile text entry over recent years, among both researchers and users. Increasingly mobile devices are being used to perform text-intensive applications, such as text messaging, creating a demand for more efficient and easier to use text entry methods. Unlike for desktop computing, no single, standard mobile text entry method has emerged. The diversity of mobile devices makes it unlikely that this will ever occur. Thus, mobile text entry

An Evaluation of Mobile Phone Text Input Methods
Abstract: The rapid growth of Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging is generating substantial commercial and research interest in fast and e#cient text input methods for mobile devices. This paper presents an empirical study that compares three mobile phone text input techniques. The methods are `multi-press input with timeout', `multi-press input with a next button', and `two-key'. The study shows that there is a significant speed di#erence, in words per minute (wpm), between the methods. The ..

Dasher a Data Entry Interface Using Continuous Gestures and Language Models
Abstract: Existing devices for communicating information to computers are bulky, slow to use, or unreliable. Dasher is a new interface incorporating language modelling and driven by continuous two-dimensional gestures, e.g. a mouse, touchscreen, or eye-tracker. Tests have shown that this device can be used to enter text at around 25 words per minute, compared with typical ten-finger keyboard typing of 40--60 words per minute. Although the interface is slower than a conventional keyboard, it is small and ...

Keyboards without Keyboards: A Survey of Virtual Keyboards
Abstract: Input to small devices is becoming an increasingly crucial factor in development for the ever-more powerful embedded market. Speech input promises to become a feasible alternative to tiny keypads, yet its limited reliability, robustness, and flexibility render it unsuitable for certain tasks and/or environments. Various attempts have been made to provide the common keyboard metaphor without the physical keyboard, to build "virtual keyboards". This promises to leverage our familiarity with the...

Typewriter Keyboards via Simulated Annealing
Abstract: We apply the simulated annealing algorithm to the combinatorial optimization problem of typewriter keyboard design, yielding nearly optimal key-placements using a figure of merit based on English letter pair frequencies and finger travel-times. Our keyboards are demonstrably superior to both the ubiquitous QWERTY keyboard and the less common Dvorak keyboard. The paper is constructed as follows: first we discuss the historical background of keyboard design; this includes August Dvorak's work

Quikwriting: Continuous Stylus-based Text Entry
Abstract: We present a "heads-up" shorthand for entering text on a stylus-based computer very rapidly. The innovations are that (i) the stylus need never be lifted from the surface, and that (ii) the user need never stop moving the stylus. Continuous multi-word text of arbitrary length can be written fluidly, even as a single continuous gesture if desired. KEYWORDS: Pen-based computers, text entry INTRODUCTION A number of authors have developed writing methods for stylus-based computers. These include ...

FlowMenu: Combining Command, Text, and Data Entry
Abstract: We present a new kind of marking menu that was developed for use with a pen device on display surfaces such as large, high resolution, wall-mounted displays. It integrates capabilities of previously separate mechanisms such as marking menus and Quikwriting, and facilitates the entry of multiple commands. While using this menu, the pen never has to leave the active surface so that consecutive menu selections, data entry (text and parameters) and direct manipulation tasks can be integrated

PDA and Gesture Use in Practice: Insights for Designers of Pen-based User Interface
Abstract: Gestures are an essential element in the realization of paper-like user interfaces. Unfortunately, poor design and recognition of gestures has impeded the adoption of these interfaces. This paper describes a survey intended to illuminate the problems users have and benefits users enjoy with gesture-based user interfaces. From the results of the survey, we conclude that: users value gestures yet problems with gestures remain; users demand more gestures; and Newtons are used largely as notebooks...

Cirrin: A word-level unistroke keyboard for pen input
Abstract: We present a new system, called Cirrin, for pen input of ASCII characters using word-level unistrokes. Our system addresses the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of penbased text entry by substituting precision on the part of the user for ease of recognitionon the part of the computer. Cirrin supports ease of recognition by the computer combined with natural, script-like input. This paper discusses the design space of word-level, unistroke input, focusing on the choices made in the circular...

Model for Unistroke Writing Time
Abstract: Unistrokes are a viable form of text input in pen-based user interfaces. However, they are a very heterogeneous group of gestures the only common feature being that all are drawn with a single stroke. Several unistroke alphabets have been proposed including the original Unistrokes, Graffiti, Allegro, T-Cube and MDITIM. Comparing these methods usually requires a lengthy study with many writers and even then the results are biased by the earlier handwriting experience that the writers have....

Predictive text entry methods for mobile phones
Abstract: Mobile phone networks are increasingly supporting the transmission of textual messages between mobile phones and between mobile phones and other services. This paper describes the current text entry method on mobile phones and describes a new text entry method using a single key-press per letter together with a large dictionary of words for disambiguation. This approach, which is similar to technology recently licensed, independently, to several phone companies, is then extended with automatic

Device Independent Text Input: A Rationale and an Example
Abstract: Individual characters and text are the main inputs in many computing devices. Currently there is a growing trend in developing small portable devices like mobile phones, personal digital assistants, GPS-navigators, and two-way pagers. Unfortunately these portable computing devices have different user interfaces and therefore the task of text input takes many forms. The user, who in the future is likely to have several of these devices, has to learn several text input methods. We argue that

TreePredict Improving text entry on PDAs
Abstract: In this paper we describe how an improved word prediction implemented on a PDA can make it easier for users to enter text. The resulting predictions are a result of trigrams using POS-tags (Part Of Speech). The first two parts of the trigrams are POS-tagged, and the last part is extended into a ternary tree, using information from the trigrams to narrow the search. With an improved predictions system, the users are more likely to trust the system, find it improves their ability to enter text

Measuring Errors in Text Entry Tasks: An Application of the Levenshtein String Distance Statistic
Abstract: We propose a new technique based on the Levenshtein minimum string distance statistic for measuring error rates in text entry research. The technique obviates the need to artificially constrain subjects to maintain synchronization with the presented text, thus affording a more natural interaction style in the evaluation. Methodological implications are discussed, including the additional need to use keystrokes per character (KSPC) as a dependent measure to capture the overhead in correcting

HMS: A Predictive Text Entry Method Using Bigrams
Abstract: Due to the emergence of SMS messages, the significance of effective text entry on limited-size keyboards has increased. In this paper, we describe and discuss a new method to enter text more efficiently using a mobile telephone keyboard. This method, which we called HMS, predicts words from a sequence of keystrokes using a dictionary and a function combining bigram frequencies and word length. We implemented the HMS text entry method on a software-simulated mobile telephone keyboard and we...

Negative Inertia: A Dynamic Pointing Function
Abstract: In-keyboard isometric joysticks can give better performance than mice for mixed typing/pointing tasks. The continuing challenge is to improve such devices to the point that they are preferable even for pure pointing tasks. Previous work has improved joystick performance by considering user perception and motor skills. This paper considers the dynamics of the pointing operation. A dynamic transfer function for an isometric joystick is described which amplifies changes in the applied force to increase responsiveness without loss of control. User tests show a 7.8 +/- 3.5% performance improvement over a standard non-dynamic joystick. This feature has been incorporated into the TrackPoint III from IBM.

Input Devices and Interaction Techniques for Advanced Computing
Abstract: One enduring trait of computing systems is the presence of the human operator. At the human-computer interface, the nature of computing has witnessed dramatic transformations--from feeding punched cards into a reader to manipulating 3D virtual objects with an input glove. The technology at our finger tips today transcends by orders of magnitude that in the behemoth calculators of the 1940s. Yet technology must co-exist with the human interface of the day. Not surprisingly, themes on keeping pace with advances in technology in the human-computer interface and, hopefully, getting ahead, underlie many chapters in this book. The present chapter is no exception. Input devices and interaction techniques are the human operator's baton. They set, constrain, and elicit a spectrum of actions and responses, and in a large way inject a personality on the entire human-machine system. In this chapter, we will present and explore the major issues in "input", focusing on devices, their properties and parameters, and the possibilities for exploiting devices in advanced human-computer interfaces.

Leveraging Word Prediction To Improve Character Prediction In A Scanning Configuration