Lardner, D, Babbages Calculating
Engines,

ON
COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO THE

By A. M. TURING

The paper which founded modern computer science

Computing machinery and intelligence – A. M. Turing

The paper which founded AI

Landauer, Rolf, Irreversibility
and Heat Generation in the Computing Process,* IBM J. Res. Dev*. ,{ **5**},183-191,
(1961).

This is the foundation paper on the relationship between physical information/entropy and computing.

Feynman, Richard, Simulating Physics with Computers*, International
Journal Theoretical Physics*, Vol 21, Nos. 6/7,
(1982), reprinted in in Hey, Antony,
ed. *Feynmann** and Computing* Westview
Press, Oxford, (2002).

This is the paper which first suggested the idea of quantum computing.

Gregory
Chaitin, Randomness in Arithmetic,Bulletin
of the European Assoc for Theoretical Comp. Sci, No.
50 (June 1993)pp 314-328.

This is a paper by one of the today’s leading complexity
theorists. It is on the relationship between randomness and computability.