Cuban Crabs
(c) Mike Davison
Dr. Helen C. Purchase
Senior Lecturer
School of Computing Science
University of Glasgow

Room S104,17 Lilybank Gardens, G12 8QQ
Email: helen.purchase@
Telephone:  +44-141-330-4484
Fax: +44-141-330-3103

I have recently had a book published by CUP:

Experimental Human-Computer Interaction

Current Administrative Roles:

Student Mobility co-ordinator in the School of Computing Science

Convenor of the School of Computing Science Recruitment and International committee

Advisor of studies for undergraduate students in the School of Computing Science.

College of Science Engineering elected representative on Council of Senate

Senate elected representative on University Education Policy and Strategy committee

College of Science Engineering nominated representative on the University Learning and Teaching committee

Senate nominated representative on the Senate Business committee

Senate Assessor for Student Conduct

Convenor of the University working group on Course Feedback

Member of the University working group on Implementation of the E-Learning Strategy

Member of the Ethics committee for the College of Science and Engineering

Research Projects:

I welcome applications from prospective PhD students who are interested in the following areas: empirical studies in HCI (particularly in visualisation), aesthetic interface design, diagram layout and aesthetics, technology to support contributing student pedagogies.

Effectiveness of Graph Layout Algorithms: This project investigates the effectiveness (from a human usability point of view) of automatic graph layout algorithms, which are usually valued for their computational efficiency, or the extent to which they conform to common aesthetic criteria (e.g.: minimising the number of edge crossings, maximising symmetrical displays). Recently, this project has addressed dynamic layout algorithms (The Edge Project:) as well as hierarchical, clustered and difference graph drawings.

Evaluation methods : I am interested in different evaluation methods, especially (but not exclusively) for visualisation and interfaces. I have written a book on this topic, have given several tutorials, and I gave an invited talk ("User evaluation: Why?") at the 12th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Data Mining (Bordeaux, 2012).

Sketched Graph Drawings : Using SketchNode, a tablet-based system for sketching graphs, this project investigates the way in which users draw graphs, and the aesthetics that user-generated drawings conform to.

Aesthetic Visualisation I am interesting in how the visual style of an interface may affect the user experience, most particularly with respect to task performance. With the help of several students in recent years, I have conducted experiments that measure task performance in relation to different 'visual aesthetics', focussing on the spatial layout of objects, but also looking at colour, font and shape.

Enabling Peer Assessment: Aropa is a peer-assessment system developed by Dr John Hamer at the University of Auckland which has been successfully used there over a wide variety of subjects for ten years. With funding from the UK Higher Education Academy and The University of Auckland, we are working on adapting it for multi-institutional use, focussing on using it at the University of Glasgow in 2010/11 for (at least) Veterinary Science, Management, Psychology, Computing Science and Biology.

Students creating Multiple Choice Questions: Peerwise is a system developed at the University of Auckland by Paul Denny, which is now used in several institutions worldwide. I have been working on a project with Paul, John Hamer and Andrew-Luxton Reilly to investigate the benefits of PeerWise use on student learning and engagement.

Contributing Student Pedagogies This project investigates the benefits of educational methods that encourage students to contribute to the learning of others and to value the contributions made by other students. We have written an extensive survey of the variety of CSPs used in Computing Science Higher Education, as well as a substantial report on the technologies that support such educational methods.

The Share Project ('To see ourselves as others see us: sharing and representing disciplinary classroom practice') I have signed up to take part in the Share Project Survey, which entails writing (and sharing) a diary entry one day a month for a year. The aim of these diaries is to learn more about the lives, beliefs, conditions of work, important issues and habits of 'the everyday academic' and to examine disciplinary teaching practice and its relationship to student achievement.

HCI Disciplinary Commons: I am a member of the HCI Disciplinary Commons led by Professor Sally Fincher; as part of this project I have produced a teaching portfolio for my HCI teaching, as well as a retrospective video.

Teaching Responsibilities:

2014-15: Interactive Systems (level 3): This course introduces key concepts in interactive system design, and information visualisation. The practical component requires students to design and implement a visualisation system based on existing data sources.

2012-15: HCI: Design and Evaluation (MSc(CS), MSc(IT)): This course is a project course, with no traditional lectures and no examination. Students work in pairs on a project throughout the semester, and choose to either undertake a significant user centred design/evaluation project, or to conduct a significant HCI experiment or evaluation.

2013-14: Software Project Management (MSc(CS), MSc(IT)): This course (jointly taught with Dr John Hamer) introduces software project management, and a variety of tools available to support effective management of software development projects. Its aims are to familiarize students with the inherent problems of managing software development projects and different aspects of software project management, and to cover the major technical components of software project management, including: cost estimation, risk analysis, project planning and monitoring, team organisation, quality management and software process improvement.

2010-12: Principles and Practise of Computing Science (level 1): This course is intended for students with a non-technical background who wish to study the key principles of computing science (rather than computer programming), and to develop skills in "computational thinking." Principles of computation underpin the design of all the technology we see around us - mobile phones, ATMs, washing machines etc. - and understanding and using computational skills helps us understand an increasingly complex world. The course can be taken by any student who does not intend to do Computing Science Honours.

2010/11: Computing Science in the Curriculm(level 4): This course is a year-long elective course for Honours students. Students are allocated to a school, which they visit for half a day every week. There they take part in activities that help pupils learn about Computing Science, and are required to prepare and conduct their own workshop for teaching a fundamental computing concept. Enrollments in this class are limited, and only students who attend an interview in June may be accepted.

2007-9: General Readings in Computing Science (MSc(CS), MSc(IT)): This year-long course covers papers of general interest which discussed with the class each week: the papers and assessment material are available on Moodle.

2002-9: Information Management (level 2): This course covers techniques in managing and presenting information, in the context of the potential uses of an information system. The course demonstrates the ways of building information systems, from data repository design to presentation to users, and contrasts the content of the information being managed with the methods of managing it and the ways of presenting it to users.

2007-9: Human Computer Interaction (level 1, as part of CS1Q): This course covers the main aspects of HCI: users, interfaces and interaction, as well as the process of design and evaluation in an iterative process. Some special interest topics are also addressed (for example, CSCW and Information Visualisation).

2005-7: Research Readings in Computing Science (MSci, MRes): This first-semester course covers 11 Computing Science research topics, one a week for 11 weeks. The sessions revolve around discussion of four seminal research papers in the topic and are led by topic specialists as well as by students. The papers and assessmetn guidelines are available on Moodle.

2005-6: Advanced Research Readings in Computing Science (MSci, MScRes): This second-semester course is run in small groups, each group covering one of the eleven topics introduced in RRCS, thus allowing students to concentrate on the topics that interest them. Like RRCS, the meetings revolve around the discussion of research papers, and are led by one or more lecturers from the relevant research group.

2002-5: User Centered Software Design (MScIT): This module presents key knowledge needed for the design, implementation and evaluation of effective user interfaces. The lecture material covers theoretical topics and principles of interative design, while the lab sessions are 'studio-based', with students actively engaged in their own design project. [This course is not running at present]

2005/6: Professional Software Development (MSc(IT), MSc(CS)): This module covers techniques required for building large software systems (including requirements, analysis, design, testing and evaluation), and the management of software projects.

Previous Research Projects:

Computer Science Education (Higher Education): This action learning project investigated the use of novel learning activities that encourage students to accept the fact that there may be multiple solutions to a single problem, and that their own solutions (and those of their peers) can contribute to their learning.

Usability of Software Engineering diagrams and presentation: This project is an extension of the Effectiveness of Graph Layout Algorithms project, where the graphs under consideration are those used in software engineering applications (for example, UML diagrams, entity-relationship diagrams). Usability studies are used to establish the usefulness (from a human comprehension perspective) of both the notation and layout of these diagrams.

Multimedia models: This project used ideas and terminology from the field of semiotics to define an unambiguous model of multimedia communication (along the dimensions of sign, syntax and modality), which has been empirically evaluated for its understandability.

Postgraduate students:

The aesthetics of interface layout (Carolyn Salimun): Carolyn iinvestigated different methods of interface design, based on formulae that measure the extent of different layout aesthetic principles (e.g. symmetry, regularity) in an interface. She ran several experiments looking at participants' performance, preferences and processes in performing a task.

Usability of Grammar Formalisms for free and fixed-word order languages (Mark Pedersen, The University of Queensland): Mark investigated different grammar formalisms (DG, PSG and LFG) for the suitability for representing free-word order in Hindi and English. Usability studies were conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of these grammar formalisms.

Electronic Blocks (Peta Wyeth, The University of Queensland): Peta defined and implemented electronic blocks suitable for children between the ages of 3 and 8 which enable a simple form of programming using input, output and logic blocks. The use of these blocks was evaluated with pre-school and primary school children.

Selected Publications:

The best place to see the full and up-to-date list of my publications is on my Glasgow Enlighten page.

1. Hamer, J., H.C. Purchase, A. Luxton-Reilly, and P. Denny, A comparison of peer and tutor feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 2014: p. 1-14.

2. Kerren, A., H.C. Purchase, and M.O. Ward, eds. Multivariate Network Visualization. LNCS 8380. 2014, Springer Verlag.

3. Kerren, A., H.C. Purchase, and M.O. Ward, Introduction to Multivariate Network Visualization, in Multivariate Network Visualization, A. Kerren, H.C. Purchase, and M.O. Ward, Editors. 2014, Springer International Publishing. p. 1-9.

4. Pretorius, A.J., H.C. Purchase, and J.T. Stasko, Tasks for Multivariate Network Analysis, in Multivariate Network Visualization, A. Kerren, H.C. Purchase, and M.O. Ward, Editors. 2014, Springer Verlag. p. 77-95.

5. Purchase, H.C., Twelve years of Diagrams Research. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 2014. 25(2): p. 57-75.

6. Purchase, H.C., A healthy critical attitude: Revisiting the results of a graph drawing study. Graph Algorithms and Applications, 2014. 18(2): p. 281-311.

7. Archambault, D. and H.C. Purchase, Memorability in Dynamic graphs. (submitted).

8. Archambault, D. and H.C. Purchase, The "Map" in the mental map: Experimental results in dynamic graph drawing. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 2013. 71(11): p. 1044-1055.

9. Archambault, D. and H.C. Purchase. Effective Visualization of Information Cascades, Information Visualisation (to appear).

10. Purchase, H.C., Sketched graph drawings: a lesson in empirical studies, in Graph Drawing. 2013, Springer Verlag. p. 232-243.

11. Archambault, D. and H.C. Purchase, Mental Map Preservation Helps User Orientation in Dynamic Graphs, in Graph Drawing. 2012. p. 475-486.

12. Archambault, D. and H.C. Purchase, The mental map and memorability in dynamic graphs, in Pacific Visualization Symposium 2012, IEEE. p. 89-96.

13. Hamer, J., J. Sheard, H.C. Purchase, and A. Luxton-Reilly, Contributing student pedagogy. Computer Science Education, 2012. 22(4): p. 315-318.

14. Marriott, K., H.C. Purchase, M. Wybrow, and C. Goncu, Memorability of Visual Features in Network Diagrams. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2012. 18(12): p. 2477 - 2485.

15. Purchase, H.C., Experimental Human-Computer Interaction: A practical guide with visual examples. 2012: Cambridge University Press. 245.

16. Purchase, H.C., E. Freeman, and J. Hamer, An Exploration of Visual Complexity in Theory and Application of Diagrams, B. Plimmer and P. Cox, Editors. 2012, Springer Verlag: Canterbury, Kent. p. 200-213.

17. Purchase, H.C., E. Freeman, and J. Hamer, Predicting Visual Complexity, in Predicting Perceptions (3rd International Conference on Appearance). 2012, Lulu Press. p. 62-65.

18. Purchase, H.C., J. Hamer, M. Nollenburg, and S.G. Kobourov, On The Usability of Lombardi Graph Drawings, in Graph Drawing. 2012, Springer p. 451-462.

19. Purchase, H.C., C. Pilcher, and B. Plimmer, Graph drawing aesthetics - created by users not algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2012. 18(1): p. 81-92.

20. Archambault, D., H.C. Purchase, and B. Pinaud, Animation, small multiples, and the effect of mental map preservation in dynamic graphs. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 2011. 17(4): p. 539-552.

21. Bourqui, R., H.C. Purchase, and F. Jourdan, Domain specific vs generic network visualization: an evaluation with metabolic networks, in Australasian User Interface Conference C. Lutteroth and H. Shen, Editors. 2011, CPRIT: Perth. p. 9-18.

22. Pate, J., S. Bell, H.C. Purchase, and J. Hamer, Peer Assessment: A Conduit for Developing Graduate Attributes?, in 6th European Conference On Innovation and Entrepreneurship, H. Fulford, Editor. 2011, Academic Publishing International: Aberdeen. p. 721-728.

23. Purchase, H.C., J. Hamer, A. Jamieson, and O. Ryan, Investigating objective measures of web page aesthetics and usability, in Australasian User Interface Conference, C. Lutteroth and H. Shen, Editors. 2011, CPRIT: Perth. p. 19-28.

24. Rodgers, P., L. Zhang, and H.C. Purchase, Wellformedness properties in Euler diagrams: which should be used? IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 2011. 18(7): p. 1089-1100.

25. Salimun, C., H.C. Purchase, and D. Simmons, Visual aesthetics in computer interface design: does it matter?, in 34th European Conference on Visual Perception. 2011. p. 220.

26. Vande Moere, A. and H.C. Purchase, On the role of design in information visualization. Information Visualisation, 2011. 10(4): p. 356-371.

27. Archambault, D., H.C. Purchase, and B. Pinaud, The readability of path-preserving clusterings of graphs. Computer Graphics Forum, 2010. 29(3): p. 1173-1182.

28. Archambault, D., H.C. Purchase, and B. Pinaud, Difference Map Readability for Dynamic Graphs, in Graph Drawing. 2010, Springer. p. 50-61.

29. Denny, P., D. Dahlstrom, H.C. Purchase, A. Luxton-Reilly, and J. Hamer, Self-Predicted and Actual Performance in an Introductory Programming Course., in 15th annual conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE). 2010. p. 118-122.

30. Hamer, J., H.C. Purchase, A. Luxton-Reilly, and J. Sheard, Tools for Contributing Student Learning. ACM Inroads, 2010. 2(2): p. 78-91.

31. Plimmer, B., H.C. Purchase, and H.-Y. Yang, SketchNode: Intelligent sketching support and formal diagramming in OzChi conference. 2010. p. 136-143.

32. Purchase, H.C., J. Hamer, P. Denny, and A. Luxton-Reilly, The Quality of a PeerWise MCQ Repository, in Australasian Computing Education Conference. 2010, CPRIT. p. 135-142.

33. Purchase, H.C., B. Plimmer, R. Baker, and C. Pilcher, Graph drawing aesthetics in user-sketched graph layouts, in 11th Australasian User Interface Conference. 2010, CPRIT p. 80-88.

34. Salimun, C., H.C. Purchase, D. Simmons, and S. Brewster, The effect of aesthetically pleasing composition on visual search performance, in Nordic Human Computer Interaction Conference. 2010, ACM. p. 422-321.

35. Salimun, C., H.C. Purchase, D.R. Simmons, and S. Brewster, Preference ranking of screen layout principles, in 24th BCS Conference on Human Computer Interaction 2010: Dundee. p. 81-87.

36. Denny, P., A. Luxton-Reilly, J. Hamer, and H.C. Purchase, Coverage of course topics in a student generated MCQ repository. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 2009. 41(3): p. 11-15.

37. Hamer, J., H.C. Purchase, P. Denny, and A. Luxton-Reilly, Quality of peer assessment in CS1, in 5th international workshop on Computing Education Research. 2009. p. 27-36.

38. Mitchell, A., H.C. Purchase, J. Hamer, D. Barr, and S. Melvin, Computing Science: What do pupils think?, in 14th annual ACM SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education 2009, ACM. p. 353-351.

39. Plimmer, B., H.C. Purchase, H.-Y. Yang, L. Laylock, and J. Milburn, Preserving the Hand-drawn Appearance of Graphs. , in International Workshop on Visual Languages and Computing. 2009. p. 347-352.

40. Denny, P., J. Hamer, A. Luxton-Reilly, and H.C. Purchase, PeerWise, in 8th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research. 2008. p. 109-122.

41. Denny, P., A. Luxton-Reilly, J. Hamer, and H.C. Purchase, PeerWise: Students Sharing their Multiple Choice Questions., in Fourth International Computing Education Research Workshop. 2008. p. 51-58.

42. Hamer, J., Q. Cutts, J. Jackova, A. Luxton-Reilly, R. McCartney, H.C. Purchase, C. Riesdel, M. Saela, and J. Sheard, Contributing Student Pedagogy. SIGSCE Bulletin, 2008. 40(4): p. 196-214.

43. Purchase, H.C., N. Andrienko, T.J. Jankun-Kelly, and M. Ward, Theoretical Foundations of Information Visualization., in Information Visualization - Human-Centered Issues and Perspectives., A. Kerren, et al., Editors. 2008, Springer. p. 46-64.

44. Purchase, H.C. and A. Samra, Extremes are better: Investigating mental map preservation in dynamic graphs, in Diagrammatic Representation and Inference, G. Stapleton, J. Howse, and J. Lee, Editors. 2008, Springer Verlag, LNAI. p. 60-73.

45. Saffrey, P. and H.C. Purchase, The 'Mental map' versus 'Static aesthetic' compromise in dynamic graphs: a user study, in 9th Australasian User Interface Conference. 2008, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. p. 85-93.

46. Reid, P., F. Hallet-Hook, B. Plimmer, and H. Purchase, Applying layout algorithms to hand-drawn graphs, in OzCHI. 2007. p. 203-206.

47. Brown, L., S.A. Brewster, and H.C. Purchase, Multidimensional tactons for non-visual information presentation in mobile devices., in 8th conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services. 2006. p. 231-238.

48. Brown, L., S.A. Brewster, and H.C. Purchase, Tactile crescendos and sforzandos: applying musical techniques to tactile icon design, in Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2006. p. 610-615.

49. Holz, H., A. Applin, B. Haberman, D. Joyce, H.C. Purchase, and C. Reed, Research Methods in Computing: What are they, and how should we teach them? SIGSCE Bulletin, 2006. 38(4): p. 96-114.

50. Purchase, H.C., Student Compliace with Ethical Guidelines: The Glasgow Ethics Code. ITALICS, HEA (Information and Computer Sciences), 2006. 5(2): p. 1-5.

51. Purchase, H.C., E. Hoggan, and C. Gorg, How important is the "Mental Map"? - An empirical investigation of a dynamic graph layout algorithm., in Graph Drawing Conference. 2006, LNCS, Springer Verlag. p. 184-195.

52. Brown, L., S. Brewster, and H.C. Purchase, A first investigation into the effectiveness of tactons, in Eurohaptics Conference. 2005, IEEE. p. 167-176.

53. Purchase, H.C., Evaluating Graph Drawing Aesthetics: defining and exploring a new empirical research area, in Computer Graphics and Multimedia: Applications, Problems and Solutions, J. DiMarco, Editor. 2004, Idea Group Publishing. p. 145-178.

54. Purchase, H.C., C. Mitchell, and I. Ounis, Gauging Students' Understanding Through Interactive Lectures, in BNCOD 21, H. Williams and L. McKinnon, Editors. 2004, Springer Verlag. p. 234-243.

55. Purchase, H.C., R. Welland, M. McGill, and L. Colpoys, Comprehension of diagram syntax: an empirical study of Entity Relationship diagram notations. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 2004. 61(2): p. 187-203.

56. Purchase, H.C., L. Colpoys, D. Carrington, and M. McGill, UML Class Diagrams: An Empirical Study of Comprehension, in Software Visualization - From Theory to Practice, K. Zhang, Editor. 2003, Kluwer. p. 149-178.

57. Wyeth, P. and H.C. Purchase, Using Developmental Theories to Inform the Deisgn of Technology for Children, in Interaction Design and Children conference. 2003, ACS. p. 93-100.

58. Carrington, D., L. Colpoys, M. McGill, and H.C. Purchase, Experimenting with Layout and Notation in UML Diagrams, in International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering 2002, IEEE. p. 9-10.

59. Purchase, H.C., Metrics for Graph Drawing Aesthetics. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing,, 2002. 13(5): p. 501-516.

60. Purchase, H.C., D. Carrington, and J.-A. Allder, Graph Layout Aesthetics in UML diagrams: User Preferences. Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications, 2002. 6(3): p. 255-279.

61. Purchase, H.C., D. Carrington, and J.-A. Allder, Empirical evaluation of aesthetics-based graph layout. Empirical Software Engineering, 2002. 7(3): p. 233-255.

62. Purchase, H.C., L. Colpoys, M. McGill, and D. Carrington, UML collaboration diagram syntax: an empirical study of comprehension, in First International Workshop of Visualizing Sofware for Understanding and Analysis,, C. Knight, M.-A. Storey, and M. Munro, Editors. 2002, IEEE. p. 13-22.

63. Purchase, H.C. and J. Worrill, An Empirical Study of Online Help Design: Features and Principles. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 2002. 56(5): p. 539-567.

64. Ware, C., H.C. Purchase, L. Colpoys, and M. McGill, Cognitive measurements of graph aesthetics. Information Visualization, 2002. 1(2): p. 103-110.

65. Wyeth, P. and H.C. Purchase, Designing Technology for Children: Moving from the Computer into the Physical World with Electronic Blocks. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual,, 2002. 1: p. 219-244.

66. Wyeth, P. and H.C. Purchase, Tangible Programming Elements for Young Children, in CHI B. Comstock and M.A. Sasse, Editors. 2002, ACM. p. 774-775.

67. Pedersen, M. and H.C. Purchase, A usability case study of grammar formalisms for free world order natural language processing in Sixth Natural Language Processing Pacific Rim Symposium, J. Tsujii and K. Su, Editors. 2001. p. 469-474.

68. Pedersen, M. and H.C. Purchase, A case study of free world order grammar development in DG, TAG and LFG in Sixth Natural Language Processing Pacific Rim Symposium, J. Tsujii and K. Su, Editors. 2001. p. 247-254.

69. Purchase, H.C., L. Colpoys, M. McGill, D. Carrington, and C. Britton, UML class diagram syntax: an empirical study of comprehension, in Asia-Pacific symposium on Information Visualisation, P. Eades and T. Pattision, Editors. 2001, Australia Computer Society. p. 113-120.

70. Purchase, H.C., M. McGill, L. Colpoys, and D. Carrington, Graph drawing aesthetics and the comprehension of UML class diagrams: an empirical study, in Asia-Pacific symposium on Information Visualisation, P. Eades and T. Pattison, Editors. 2001, Australian Computer Society. p. 129-137.

71. Purchase, H.C. and D. Naumann, A Semiotic Model of Multimedia: Theory and Evaluation, in Design and Management of Multimedia Information Systems: Opportunities and Challenges, S.M. Rahman, Editor. 2001, Idea Group Publishing. p. 1-21.

72. Wyeth, P. and H.C. Purchase, Exploring the Learning Potential of an Artificial Life Simulation. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-long Learning, 2001. 11(3): p. 229-241.

73. Purchase, H.C., Learning about Interface Design through Peer Assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 2000. 25(4): p. 341-352.

74. Purchase, H.C., Effective information visualisation: a study of graph drawing aesthetics and algorithms. Interacting with Computers, 2000. 13(2): p. 477-506.

75. Purchase, H.C., Peer Assessment: Encouraging Reflection on Interface Design, in Australasian Computer Science Conference. 2000, IEEE. p. 196-203.

76. Purchase, H.C., J.-A. Allder, and D. Carrington, User preference of Graph Layout Aesthetics: a UML study, in Graph Drawing symposium, J. Marks, Editor. 2000, S[ringer Verlag. p. 5-18.

77. Purchase, H.C., D. Carrington, and J.-A. Allder, Experimenting with aesthetics-based graph layout, in Theory and Application of Diagrams Conference, M. Anderson, P. Cheng, and V. Haarslev, Editors. 2000, Springer Verlag. p. 498-501.

78. Purchase, H.C. and D. Naumann, The TOMUS Model of Multimedia: an empirical investigation, in Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications Conference, J. Bordeau and R. Heller, Editors. 2000, AACE. p. 922-927.

79. Wyeth, P. and H.C. Purchase, Programming without a Computer: A new interface for children under eight, in Australasian User Interface Conference, B. Thomas and J. Warren, Editors. 2000, IEEE. p. 141-148.

80. Burmeister, J., J. Wiles, and H.C. Purchase, The integration of cognitive knowledge into a perceptual representation: Lessons from Human and Computer Go, in Perspectives on Cognitive Science, vol II: Theories, experiments, and foundations, J. Wiles and T. Dartnall, Editors. 1999, Ablex. p. 239-258.

81. Dia, H. and H.C. Purchase, Modelling the impacts of advanced traveller information systems using intelligent agents. Road and Transport Research, 1999. 8(3): p. 68-73.

82. Purchase, H.C., Informationally Equivalent Representations: An architecture and applications, in Perspectives on Cognitive Science, vol II: Theories, experiments, and foundations, J. Wiles and T. Dartnall, Editors. 1999, Ablex. p. 329-346.

83. Purchase, H.C., A Semiotic Definition of Multimedia Communication. Semiotica, 1999. 123(3/4): p. 247-259.

84. Wyeth, P. and H.C. Purchase, Developmentally Appropriate Learning: Implications for Early Childhood Technology Education, in Ninth International PEG Conference. 1999. p. 115-122.

85. Purchase, H.C., Performance of layout algorithms: comprehension, not computation. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 1998. 9(6): p. 647-657.

86. Purchase, H.C., Defining Multimedia. IEEE Multimedia, 1998. 5(1): p. 8-15.

87. Purchase, H.C., The Effects of Graph Layout, in OzCHI 1998, IEEE. p. 80-86.

88. Hussey, A., D. Leadbetter, and H.C. Purchase, Learning object-oriented programming in six hours: an experience with school students, in Australasian Conference on Computer Science Education, J. Hurst, Editor. 1997, ACM Press. p. 117-125.

89. Purchase, H.C., Which aesthetic has the greatest effect on human understanding?, in Graph Drawing Conference, G. Di Battista, Editor. 1997, LNCS, Springer Verlag. p. 248-261.

90. Purchase, H.C., Multimedia Communication and Technology: a Semiotic Perspective, in HCI International Conference, M. Smith, G. Salvendy, and R.J. Koubek, Editors. 1997, Elsevier. p. 687-690.

91. Purchase, H.C., R.F. Cohen, and M. James, An Experimental Study of the Basis for Graph Drawing Algorithms,. ACM Journal of Experimental Algorithmics, 1997. 2(4): p. 1-17.

92. Purchase, H.C., A. Hussey, W. Brookes, and D. Leadbetter, Fostering interest in Information Technology: running a vacation school for pre-university students, in Second Australasian Conference on Computer Science Education, J. Hurst and H. S√łndergaard, Editors. 1997, ACM. p. 126-134.

93. Bakker, P., A. Goodchild, P. Strooper, D. Carrington, I. MacColl, P. Creasy, and H.C. Purchase, Setting Up a Tutor Training Programme in Computer Science, in Australian Conference on Computer Science Education, J. Rosenberg, Editor. 1996, ACM Press. p. 254-259.

94. Pederson, M. and H.C. Purchase, Pragmatics versus Purism - taking the best of both worlds, in PRICAI-96 Workshop on Future Issues for Multi-lingual Text Processing, D. Estival and R. Dale, Editors. 1996.

95. Purchase, H.C. and J.M. Kennish, Gloss: interactive navigation of lexical space, in Asia-Pacific conference on Human Computer Interaction, G. Yong, et al., Editors. 1996.

96. Bakker, P., D. Carrington, A. Goodchild, I. Hayes, H.C. Purchase, and P. Strooper, The communicating technologist: An educational challenge, in Frontiers in Education Conference, D. Budny and B. Herrick, Editors. 1995, IEEE Press. p. 4a4.1 - 4a4.4 vol.2

97. Burmeister, J., J. Wiles, and H.C. Purchase. On relating local and global factors: a case study from the game of Go. in Third Australian and New Zealand Conference on Intelligent Information Systems. 1995: IEEE.

98. Burmeister, J., J. Wiles, and H.C. Purchase. The integration of cognitive knowledge into perceptual representations in computer Go. in Proceedings of the Second Game Programming Workshop in Japan. 1995.

99. Purchase, H.C., Interactive schematic representation systems and related research issues, in International Conference on Computers in Education, D. Jonassen and G. McGalla, Editors. 1995, AACE.

100. Purchase, H.C., R.F. Cohen, and M. James, Validating graph drawing aesthetics, in Graph Drawing Symposium, F.J. Brandenberg, Editor. 1995, Springer Verlag, LNCS. p. 435-446.

101. Purchase, H.C. Computers as interactive representational devices for declarative domains. in World conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 1994: AACE.

102. Purchase, H.C., A schematic knowledge-based educational system and its use in investigating symbolic processing, structural envisagement, and reflective skills, in World conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, P. Brna, S. Ohlsson, and H. Pain, Editors. 1993, AACE.

103. Purchase, H.C., Kreek : Investigating pre-adolescent symbolic, structural envisagement, and reflective skills, in Seventh PEG conference on AI tools and the classroom: theory into practise. 1993.

104. Purchase, H.C. and C.B. Robinson, Kreek : Knowledge presentation, expression and enquiry, in Sixth International PEG conference on Knowledge based environments for teaching and learning, R.M. Bottino, P. Forcheri, and M.T. Molfino, Editors. 1991, Instituo per la Matematica Applicata.

105. Purchase, H.C. and C.B. Robinson, Design issues for a knowledge-based educational system, in 5th World conference on Computers in Education, A. McDougall and C. Dowling, Editors. 1990, IFIP.

106. Bradshaw, J. and H.C. Purchase, Three ecological applications in P.R.O., in Expert system Applications, S. Vadera, Editor. 1989, Sigma Press. p. 133-148.

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