Chris Johnson, Index
Human Error and Group Work:
Situation Awareness
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"Investigators were able to trace a series of errors that initiated with the flight crews acceptance of the controller's offer to land on runway 19. The flightcrew expressed concern about possible delays and accepted an offer to expedite their approach into Cali... One of the AA965 pilots selected a direct course to the Romeo NDB believing it was the Rozo NDB, and upon executing the selection in the FMS permitted a turn of the airplane towards Romeo, without having verified that it was the correct selection and without having first obtained approval of the other pilot, contrary to AA procedures... The flightcrew had insufficient time to prepare for the approach to Runway 19."

Acknowledgement: Controlled Flight Into Terrain, American Airlines Flight 965 Boeing 757-223, N651AA Near CALI, Colombia December 20, 1995 Aeronautica Civil of the Republic of Colombia