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W Paul Cockshott,

I was born in Edinburgh 1952 and educated at McMaster, Manchester, Heriot Watt and Edinburgh Universities. I trained originally as an economist and later studied computer science at Heriot WattUniversity and Edinburgh University. I worked in industry for ICL on hardware verification and for Memex on the design of database machines. I have been a research worker or lecturer at the universities of Edinburgh, Heriot Watt, Glasgow and Strathclyde. Currently I am a Reader in the Computing Science Department at the University of Glasgow
I have a proven track record in intellectual leadership of research groups at Memex, Strathclyde and Glasgow. At Memex, all of the research projects undertaken by their R&D division whilst I was there were were proposed by me. At Strathclyde I was instrumental in coalescing the 10 strong Data-Compression group. At Glasgow I am the senior academic in the Computer Vision and Graphics group.
• Awarded £715K in government competitive research contracts.
• Secured £615K in industrial research contracts.
• Published 7 books, 4 chapters in books, 41 refereed journal papers, 51 conference papers, and 10 patents.
• Supervised 6 PhD students to completion and is currently supervising 1 PhD student.

Academic Qualifications

• B A, Manchester University, 1973 in Economics Hons 2(ii).
• Secondary School Teachers Certificate Moray House, 1974
• MSc. Computer Science, Heriot Watt University, 1976.
• Ph.D. Computer Science, Edinburgh University.

Professional Awards

A H Reeve Premium, awarded by Institution of Electrical Engineers in 2005, for my contributions to 3D TV.

Membership of Professional Bodies

  •  EPSRC Computer College 1998-2001
  •  American Association for Advancement of Science since 1992
  •  IEEE Computer Society 1977-2002
  •  International Working Group on Value Theory 1996-2000

Work History

1998-present Principal Research Fellow then Reader in Computing Science, University of Glasgow
• 1988-1997 Lecturer then Senior Lecturer in Computer Science, University of Strathclyde
• 1987..1988 Part time lecturer in computer architecture Heriot Watt University
• 1985-88 Senior Systems Designer, Memex Information Engines Edinburgh
• 1979-84 Research Associate, University of Edinburgh
• 1976-78 Software Engineer at ICL Design Automation, West Gorton.

Evidence of Esteem

On editorial board of the Bulletin of Political Economy
Plenary speaker at conference Sozialismus im 21. Jahrhundert held by Luxemburg Stiftung in Berlin, Nov 10- 11, 2006. Meeting chaired by former prime-minister Hans Modrow. My talk was broadcast on local Berlin TV.
Invited to speak at FIRST CONFERENCE OF PEOPLES AND STATES FOR THE LIBERATION OF GREATER LATIN AMERICA (Patria Grande) Oct 26th 2006, called by President Evo Morales of Bolivia, who called the meeting of popular organizations and citizens of Latin America and the Caribbean in general, in order to set up a BLOQUE REGIONAL DE PODER. Due to my having to attend a plenary meeting of the IP-Racine project in Venice that day, my co-author Allin Cottrell addressed the meeting instead.
Invited to address conference at Centro Miranda Caracas, Oct 23rd 2006, on computers and economic planning. Had to turn this down because of IP-Racine project.
The Austrian installation artist Oliver Ressler produces a video installation of me talking on computers and democracy in the grounds of Glasgow University to be shown at the Second International Biennial of Contemporary Art, Seville (E), 26.10.2006 , 15.01.2007 (The Un-homely: Phantom Scenes in Global Society)
Plenary speaker at XI. internationale Rosa-Luxemburg-Konferenz, 14. Januar 2006. Humboldt-Universitat , Berlin.
Plenary speaker at Seminario Internacional El Nuevo Proyecto Historico, held at Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, 15 May 2003. I was also a round table speaker at the end of the conference. Other members of the round table included Evo Morales who is now Bolivian President.
Act as referee for: Cambridge Journal of Economics, Intervention Journal of Economics, IEE Proc. Vision, Image & Signal Processing, Optics and Laser Technology, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, Journal Electronic Imaging, ACM Crossroads, Journal of Computing and Information Technology, VLSI Journal, International Journal of Computers and Applications, 3rd International Conference on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies, Systems, Man and Cybernetics - Part B, Information and Software Technology, Springer Verlag.
Review grant application for: EPSRC, Kentucky Science & Engineering Foundation.

Industrial Collaboration

My work on video compression was utilised by Orange PLC in their videophone, and my video compression patents were the basis for Glasgow startup company Essential Viewing which continues to trade.
My work on database compression was the basis for the Glasgow based startup company Planning Sciences International. This firm traded for about 4 years before running into financial dificulties.
I have acted as an expert witness for IBM and Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer in two legal cases relating to the hardware design of personal computers.
I have collaborated with Pepper's Ghost Ltd on the use of real time capture in 3D computer animation.
I have acted as a consultant to Iredeto Access and De La Rue on the optimal ordering of banknotes in bank auto-teller machines.
I have consulted with Highland Geology Ltd on improved methods for the visualisation of potentially oil bearing strata from echo soundings.
I collaborated with Quintix formerly DERA on the development and delivery of a real time 3D capture system under a contract with the University of Glasgow.



Computability and Economic theory

Empirical studies of sectoral price formation in the US, Mexico and the UK. (1994-now)
• Stochastic/Boltzman models of price formation.( ongoing)
• Hilbert Space models of price formation. (ongoing)
• Relationship between algorithmic information theory and economics. (ongoing)
• Investigations into the correlation between capital composition and profitability of industrial sectors in the US and UK economies. (ongoing)
• Theory of productive and unproductive labour.
• Theory of Economic Planning, currently one of the leading world theorists in this area. (1988-now)

Cardiac Imaging

Work in conjunction with Professors Dargie and Eliott and the Cardiac MRI unit at the Western Infirmary Glasgow. (2003..2005)
• Technique developed to give an animated cardiac image showing areas of disease.
• Diagnostically useful in determining need for by-pass surgery.
• World first for this type of imagery.
• Technique patented by University of Glasgow.


DATA Compression

Development of data compression system for digital cinema under the EU funded IP-RACINE project (ongoing).
• Initiated a project funded under Scottish Enterprise Proof of Concept (2002..2004) to provide compression technology for confocal microscopy. Work done in collaboration with the Biology Department. This developed technique which provides 100 to 1 compression of stacks of microscope images. Archiving and sharing such images is a major problem. This technique makes them distributable over the web. Our publications show that this achieves best quality of any currently known technique.
• Led development of the Strathclyde Compression Transform (SCT), a low bandwidth video compression system suitable for video-telephony or Internet TV broadcasting. Work funded by Orange PLC and Acorn computers to the sum of over �200,000. Patented and licensed to Orange and Essential Viewing Ltd. Provided basis for the 2002 launched Orange Video Phone, this was the first mobile videophone developed outside of Japan. (1995-2000)
• Design of the Hibase compressed relational database system. Patented and licensed to Gentia software and other database companies. (1994-1997)
• Optimal rate control strategies for compressed video. (1998)


3D TV Studio Developed under SHEFC Michelangelo grant. 24 Video Cameras along with 8 computers build 3D moving models of actors using stereo-vision techniques. Used in 3 follow on research grants in association with film/TV industry. (2000-2002)
• Development of 3D face conforming software to allow transfer of facial expressions between characters, this provided the basis for several follow on projects in the Computer Vision and Graphics Lab.(1999)
• Research into the use of MMX parallelism for fast stereo image matching.(2000)


NESC funded PGP-GRID project (2004..2005) in collaboration with Edinburgh Parallel Computer Center and Peppers Ghost Ltd a leading computer animation house.
• Application of Pi-calculus to the GRID.
• Uses 3d Studio
• Grid parallelism of 3D Vision
• Advanced cartoon animation using 3D TV studio.

Programming Languages

Development of compiler tools to allow full use of parallel instruction-sets of modern PCs. (ongoing)
• Programming Language Vector-Pascal. Significant speedup achieved compared to conventional PC compilers. Eases expression of matrix problems. Book published 2004. . (ongoing)
• Led a project at Memex to develop a compiler chip to translate Pascal to machine code using hardware. (1987)
• Played a leading role in the design and implementation of the language PS-algol. The results of the research have been extensively reported in the literature. The early work on persistence in programming languages led to the emergence of a rapidly developing programming technique. The approach has adopted by major international companies, Sun incorporated it in the Java Spaces system, and many academic research groups use it. (1979-1982)

Computer Hardware

Research into the use of field programmable gate arrays to solve 3-SAT the canonical NP complete problem, (ongoing).
• Development of synchronisation and flash systems to allow simultaneous capture by large number of stroboscopic TV cameras (2000..2003).
• Design and implementation of the SPACE machine, a high performance process algebra parallel computer for discrete event simulation. This work involved hardware design using transputers and Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Machine approximately 1 million times faster than then available PCs for lattice gas and traffic simulations. (1991-1994)
• Designed and implemented two special purpose database computers designed for free-text retrieval. (1984-1987)
• Designed a 128 bit object-object co-processor to be used with SUN workstations and worked on the establishment of standards for the interchange of persistent data. (1985-1987)
• Developed the Kaleidoscope windowing colour graphics display processor for high speed animation, a floppy disk controller for Sinclair computers that was put into production by Centronic Inc. of New Jersey. (1982)
• Collaborated with ICL and Acorn computers on the application of persistence to mainframes and workstations, resulting in Acorn awarding me funds to develop the Poppy a 64-bit persistent store computer based upon a modified NS32016 processor with object oriented addressing. (1983-1984)


Computer Fundamentals;
• Graphics and Multimedia Systems;
• Advanced Information Systems Msc, taught information theory, persistence and database compression.;
• Computer Systems 2;
• Programming Language Design and Implementation;
• Synthetic Graphics;
• 4th Year Compilers;
• AI Techniques;
• Compiler construction;
• History and Philosophy of Computer Design;
• Computer Organisation;
• Low Level Programming.


  • Department representative on Faculty, University of Strathclyde.
  • On research and teaching committees University of Glasgow
  • 2nd and 3rd Year courses co-ordinator, University of Glasgow.
  • Management Committee of the Imaging Faraday Partnership, University of Glasgow.
  • Chair Research Student Committee

Other activities

• Visiting researcher, Gesellschaft fur Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung, Schloss Birlinghoven.
• Visiting Lecturer faculty of economics UNAM, Mexico City.
• Parliamentary Candidate for Clydesdale in 2001 General Election.


I Books

1. PS-algol Implementations, Ellis Horwood, 1990, P Cockshott
2. A Compiler Writers Toolbox , Ellis Horwood, 1990, P Cockshott
3. Towards a new socialism, Bertrand Russell Press, Notingham, 1993, P. Cockshott, A. Cottrell.
4. Planhushallning och direktdemokrati, Manifest Bokforlag, Stokholm, 2002, P. Cockshott, A. Cottrell
5. SIMD Programming for Linux, Springer, May 2004. P. Cockshott, K. Renfrew.
6. Alternativen aus dem Rechner, P. Cockshott, A. Cottrell, Papya Rossa Verlag, Koln, 2006.
7. Kybersocialismus, P. Cockshott, A. Cottrell, Marek, Brno, 2006.

II Chapters in books

8. Does Marx need to Transform?, Paul Cockshott and Allin Cottrell, in Riccardo Bellofiore (ed) Marxian Economics a Reapraisal, Macmillan, London, 1998.
9. Values Law Values Metric, W. Paul Cockshott and Allin F. Cottrell, in A. Freeman, A Kliman and J. Wells (eds) The New Value Controversy and the Foundations of Economics, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2004.
10. Reflections on Economic Democracy, in Paul Zambreka (ed) The Capitalist State and Its Economy, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005.
11. El Valor Y Los Modelos Economicos Socialistas, P. Cockshott, A. Cottrell, in Joaquin Arriola (ed) Derecho a Decidir, Viejo Topo, Caracas, 2006.

III journal papers

12. PS-algol: an Algol with a Persistent Heap, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 17, No 7 (July 1981), 24-31. Atkinson M P, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P.
13. Algorithms for a Persistent Heap, Software Practice and Experience, Vol. 13, No 3, (March 1983), 259-272. Atkinson M P, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P.
14. CMS - A chunk management system, Software Practice and Experience, Vol. 13, No 3, (March 1983), 273-85. Atkinson M P, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P.
15. An approach to persistent programming, The Computer Journal, 1983, Vol. 26, No 4, 360-365, Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, Morrison R.
16. POMS - a persistent object management system, Software Practice and Experience, Vol. 14, No 1,( January 1984), 49- 71, Cockshott W P, Atkinson M P, Chisholm K J, Bailey P J, Morrison R.
17. Persistent Programming and Secure Data Storage, Software Development, Vol. 29, No 5, June 1987, Cockshott W P.
18. Labour Value and socialist economic calculation, Economy and Society, Vol. 18, No. l. Feb. 1989, Paul Cockshott & Allin Cottrell.
19. Layered Implementations of Persistent Object Stores, March 89, Software Engineering Journal, W P Cockshott, P. Balch, and P. Foulk.
20. A low cost text retrieval machine, IEE Proceedings E, Vol. 136, July 89, P Cockshott P Foulk
21. Application of artificial intelligence techniques to Economic Planning, Journal of Future Computer Systems, Nov 1989, P Cockshott
22. Parsing Instruction-set Computers, IEE Proceedings E, Vol. 138, No5 1991, P Cockshott P Foulk
23. Scaleable cellular array architecture, Computing and Control Engineering Journal, Vol. 3 , No 5 ,1992, P. Cockshott, P. Shaw, P Barrie, G. Milne
24. Design and verification of a highly concurrent machine, Microprocessors and Microsystems, Vol. 16 No 3, P Barrie, 1993, P Cockshott, P. Shaw, G. Milne
25. Calculation complexity and planning, Review of Political Economy, Vol. 5 , No 1 ,1993, A Cottrell, P Cockshott
26. Socialist Planning after the Collapse of the Soviet Union, Revue Europeenne des science sociales, 1993, Tome XXXI, No. 96, A Cottrell, P. Cockshott.
27. Persistent objects in Turbo Pascal for Windows, Journal of Object Oriented Programming, 1993, Vol. 6, No. 2, P Cockshott.
28. Architectures for persistence, Microprocessors and Micro-systems, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1993, Gordon Russell and Paul Cockshott.
29. Approaches to real-time Fractal image compression, Electronic Imaging, Vol. 4, No 2, 1994, R J Fryer, D R McGregor, P Cockshott, P Murray.
30. Testing Marx: Some new results from UK data, Capital and Class, Number 55, spring 1995, Paul Cockshott, Allin Cottrell, and Greg Michaelson.
31. Implementation of Lattice Gasses Using FPGAs, Journal of VLSI Signal Processing, Vol. 12, No 1, pp. 51-66, 1996.
32. Reply to Maniatis, Paul Cockshott, Allin Cottrell, Greg Michaelson, Capital and Class, Vol. 59, 1996, pp55-60.
33. Labour time versus alternative value bases: a research note. Paul Cockshott, Allin Cottrell, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 21 No 4, July 1997, pp. 545-549.
34. Information and Economics. Paul Cockshott and Allin Cottrell, Research in Political Economy, Vol. 16, (1997), pp177-202.
35. Value Markets and Socialism, Paul Cockshott and Allin Cottrell, Science and Society, Vol. 61, no. 3, 1997, pp. 330-357.
36. High Performance Operations Using a Compressed Database Architecture, W.P. Cockshott, D. McGregor, J. Wilson, Computer Journal, Vol. 14, no 5, (1998), pp. 283-296.
37. Algorithm for the Hierarchical Vector Quantization of Video Data, Paul Cockshott and Robert Lambert, IEE Proceedings Vision, Image and Signal Processing, pp 222-228, August (1999).
38. A comment on: Socialism and Innovation by David Kotz, Cottrell, A. J., Cockshott, W. P., Science & Society, Vol. 66, No 1 pp. 109-110, 2002.
39. A comment on: Democratic Planned Socialism by Al Campbell, Cockshott, W. P., Cottrell, A.J., Science & Society, Vol. 66, No 1, pp 43-44, 2002.
40. Confocal Microscopic Image Sequence Compression Using Vector Quantization and 3D Pyramids, Cockshott, W. P., Tao, Y., Gao, G. Balch, P., Briones, A. M., Daly, C., Scanning - The Journal of Scanning Microscopies, pp 247-256, 2003.
41. An Experimental 3D Digital TV studio, Cockshott, W.P., Hoff, S., Nebel, J-C., IEE Proceedings - Vision, Image & Signal Processing, February 2003, pp 28-33.
42. A note on the organic composition of capital and rates of profit, Allin Cottrell and Paul Cockshott, Cambridge Journal of Economics Vol. 27, No 5 , 749-754, 2003.
43. Robust Correlations between sectoral prices and values, Cockshott, P. Cottrell, A, Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol 29, 309-316, March, 2005.
44. Efficient compilation of array expressions, Cockshott, P., APL Quote Quad, Vol 34, Number 2 pp 16-25 ACM, 2005.
45. Symmetries and Exchange Relations, Cockshott, W.P., Pol�tica y Cultura, n�m. 23, pp 3-32, primavera 2005.
46. Orthogonal parallel processing in Vector Pascal, Cockshott, W.P. Michaelson, G.J. Computer Languages, vol 32, issue 1,pp 2-41 Pergamon Press, 2005.
47. Pre-commercial 3D Digital TV studio, Nebel, J.C. Cockshott, W.P. Yarmolenko, V. Borland, E. MacVicar, D. IEE Proceedings - Vision, Image, and Signal Processing pp 665-667, 2005.
48. Array Languages and the challenges of modern computer architecture, Cockshott, W.P. APL Quote Quad, Vol 34, Number 3 ACM, 2005.
49. Hunting Productive Work. Cockshott, P, Zachariah, D., Science and Society, vol 70, No 4 pp 509-527, 2006
50. Demography and the Falling Rate of Profit, Cockshott, W.P. Cottrell, A., Indian Development Review, vol 4 pp 39-59, 2006.
51. Constructing Dense Correspondences for the Analysis of 3D Facial Morphology Mao, Z. Ju, X. Siebert, J.P. Cockshott, W.P. Ayoub, A.F. Pattern Recognition Letters, Volume 27, Issue 6 (15 April 2006) pp 597-608 Elsevier Science
52. Applying the Grid to 3D capture technology, Cockshott, W.P. Mackenzie, L. Yarmolenko, V. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience Wiley, May, 2006.


53. Progress with persistent programming, presented at the CREST course at the UEA, September 1982, Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, Morrison R.
54. Problems with persistent programming languages, presented at the workshop on programming languages and database systems, University of Pennsylvania, October 1982. Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, Morrison R.
55. Current progress with persistent programming, presented at the DEC workshop on persistent programming languages and databases, Boston, April 1983, Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, Morrison R.
56. PS-algol a language for persistent programming, 10th Australian Computer Conference, Melbourne Sept 1983, 70-79, Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, MORRISON R.
57. PSM16000 , Proceedings of the first Alvey Workshop On Architectures For .large Knowledge Bases, Manchester University, May 1984, Cockshott W P.
58. Knowledge Base Machines - requirements and short to medium term possibilities, Proceedings of the second Alvey Workshop On Architectures For Large Knowledge Bases, Manchester University, July 1984, Cockshott W P.
59. Addressing Mechanisms and Persistent Programming, proceedings of the Data Types and Persistence Workshop, Appin, August 1985, 363-383, Cockshott W P.
60. Persistent Object Store Hardware and Software Interfaces, proceedings of Alvey workshop on Knowledge Manipulation Engines, 28-29 May 1987, Brunel University, Cockshott W P.
61. Vorlich - a hardware regular expression processor, proceedings of the European UNIX Users Group Conference, Spring 1987, Helsinki, Cockshott W P, Forsyth M, Foulk P W.
62. Stable Virtual Memory, proceedings of the workshop on Persistent Object Systems: their design, implementation and use, August 1987, Appin, P Cockshott.
63. Design of POMP a persistent object management coprocessor, in Persistent object systems: their design implementation and use, Newcastle Australia, 1989. Published by Springer Verlag as Persistent Object Systems, P Cockshott.
64. Implementing large persistent address spaces on Intel processors, Bremen conference on computer architectures for persistence and security 1990. Published by Springer Verlag, P Cockshott.
65. A learning circuit that operates by discrete means, P Cockshott , G Milne, in VLSI for Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks, Plenum Press, 1990
66. Performance Evaluation of the Rekursiv Object Oriented Computer, Hawaii Intl. Conf. System Sciences, 1992, P. Cockshott.
67. Socialist Planning after the collapse of the Soviet Union, in Symposium on The Socialist Calculation debate After the Upheavals in Eastern Europe, December 1992, University de Lausanne, Allin Cottrell, Paul Cockshott.
68. Realizing Massively Concurrent Systems on the SPACE Machine, IEEE Workshop on FPGAs for Custom Computing Machines, 1993, P Barrie, P Cockshott, G McCaskill, G Milne.
69. A Scaleable Neural Architecture Combining Unsupervised and Suggestive Learning, Proc. Int. Con. on Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms, Innsbruck, Austria, 1993, R Lambert, P Cockshott, R Fryer.
70. DAIS: an object oriented processor cache, Persistent Object Systems 6, 1994, G Russell, P Cockshott.
71. Does Marx Need to Transform, Marxian Economics a Centenary Appraisal, International Conference on Karl Marx�s Third Volume of Capital: 1894-1994, University of Bergamo, December 1994, Paul Cockshott, and Allin Cottrell. Reprinted in Marxian Economics, a Reappraisal, Ed R. Bellafiore, Macmillan 1998, Vol. II pages 70-85.
72. Information and Economics, Eastern Economic Association conference, Boston March 1996, Paul Cockshott and Allin Cottrell.
73. Low Bandwidth Video Compression with Variable Dimension Vector Quantization, Proceedings of the First Advanced Digital Video Compression Engineering Conference, Cambridge 1996, R. Lambert, R.J. Fryer, W.P. Cockshott, D.R. McGregor.
74. The Scientific Status of the Labour Theory of Value, Intl Working Group on Value Theory, Mini-conference within the Eastern Economic Association conference, Washington March 1997, Paul Cockshott and Allin Cottrell.
75. Data compression in database systems, International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium 98, Cardiff 1998, W.P. Cockshott, D. McGregor, N. Kotsksi, J. Wilson.
76. Un mod�le de planification efficace, at conference organised by Centre D�etudes Prospectives D�economie Mathematique Appliquees A La Planification, Univ. Paris X, 1998 Paul Cockshott, Allin Cottrell.
77. Compact Representation: An approach to efficient Implementation in OLAP, Ninth International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications, Vienna 1998, N. Kotsis, D.R. McGregor, J.N. Wilson, and W.P. Cockshott.
78. Value theory, plans and computational complexity, Intl Working Group on Value Theory, Mini-conference within the Eastern Economic Association conference, Boston March 1999, Paul Cockshott
79. Optimal allocation of Bits to Frames in Compressed Video, SCI2000, 4th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando Florida 2000, Paul Cockshott, Allin Cottrell and David Breslin.
80. Allin Cottrell and W. Paul Cockshott, �Calculation, complexity and planning: the socialist calculation debate once again,� Review of Political Economy, 5.1, 1993, pp.73-112, reprinted in Socialism vs. the Market: The Socialist Calculation Debate, 9 Volumes, New York and London: Routledge, 2000, Vol. 9: The Current Status of the Debate, Edited by Peter J. Boettke.
81. Stroboscopic stereo rangefinder, Nebel, J-C. Rodriguez-Miguel F. J., Cockshott, W. P., 3DIM2001, May 28 - June 1, 2001, Qu�bec City, Canada.
82. Realisation crises and the polarisation of capital, Cockshott, P., Association of Heterodox Economics Conference, London 2001.
83. Vector Pascal an array language for multi-media code, Cockshott, P. SIGAPL APL2002 conference, 83-91, ACM, 2002.
84. Microscopic Volumetric Image Data Compression Using Vector Quantization and 3D Pyramids, Cockshott, W.P. Tao, Y. Gao, G. Daly, C. ,Picture Coding Symposium 2003 (PCS�03), Saint Malo, France, pp 119-124, IEEE Computer Society Press.
85. Las Computadoras Y La Democracia Economica, Cockshott, P. Cottrell, A., Conference �New Historical Project�, Central University Quito Ecuador, 2003.
86. Economic Planning Computers and Labor Values, Cockshott, P. Cottrell, A., Conferencia Internacional la Obra de Carlos Marx y los Desaf�os del Siglo XXI, Havana, 2003.
87. PGPGrid Project, Cockshott, P. Mackenzie, L.M. Yarmolenko, V., Global GRID Forum, Berlin, 2004.
88. Constructing Dense Correspondences to Analyze 3D Facial Change, Mao, Z., Siebert, J.P. Cockshott, W.P. Ayoub, A.F. ,The 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Cambridge, 2004.
89. An Efficient and Robust Method to determine Cardiac Contours in Time-Series MRI images, Gao, G. Cockshott,P. Martin, T. Foster, J. Elliott, A. Dargie, H. Groening.
International Society of Magnetic Resonance Medicine, 2004.
90. A novel method for viability assessment by cinematographic and late contrast enhanced MRI images, Gao, G. Cockshott,P. Martin, T. Foster, J. Elliott, A. Dargie, H. Groenning, B., Society of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance , 2004.
91. A novel method for viability assessment by cinematographic and late contrast enhanced MRI, Gao, G. Cockshott, P., Martin, T., Foster, J., Elliot, A., Dargie, H., Groenning, B., In Proceedings of SPIE Conf. on Medical Imaging (2004), San Diego, USA.
92. A coordinate-free method for the analysis of 3D facial change, Mao, Z., Siebert, J. P., Cockshott, W. P., Ayoub, A.F. In Proceedings of SPIE Conf. on Medical Imaging (2004), San Diego, USA.
93. 3D Microscopic image coding by finite-state vector quantization in an enhanced image pyramid, Tao, Y. Cockshott, W.P. , In Proceedings of SPIE Conf. on Medical Imaging (2004), San Diego, USA .
94. Value�s Law, Value�s Metric, Cockshott, P., Cottrell, A., in Freeman, A., Kliman, A., Wells, J., (Eds) (2004), The New Value Controversy and the Foundations of Economics, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
95. 3D Performance Capture for Facial Animation, MacVicar, D.W., Ford, S., Borland ,E., Rixon, R.C., Patterson, J.W., Cockshott, W.P., 3DPVT, Thessaloniki, Greece, IEEE Computer Society Press, (2004), ISBN/ISSN: 0-7695-2223-8
96. The PGP Grid Project, Cockshott, W.P., Yarmolenko, V. Mackenzie, L. Borland, E. Graham,P. Ju,X. , All Hands Conference, Nottingham, ( 2004).
97. An Efficient and Robust Method to determine Cardiac Contours in Time-Series MRI images Gao,G. Cockshott,P. Martin,T. Foster,J. Elliott,A. Dargie,H. Groenning,B. International Society of Magnetic Resonance Medicine
98. Constructing Dense Correspondences to Analyze 3D Facial Change, Mao,Z. Siebert,J.P. Cockshott,W.P. Ayoub,A.F. The 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Cambridge, UK 2004.
99. JPIE INTERFACE: A Java Implementation of the PI-Calculus for Grid Computing, Yarmolenko, V., Cockshott, P., Borland, E., Mackenzie, L., Graham, P., Proceedings Middleware Grid Conference, Toronto-Canada ( Oct 2004)
100. Die Technik des Sozialismus existiert, Cockshott, P., Rosa Luxemburg Memorial Conference, Jan 2006, published in Junge Welt, 1 Feb, 2006.
101. A Resolution-Independent Image Representation for Digital Cinema, Brugnot,S. Ju,X. Cockshott,P. Siebert,P. WSCG�2006 conference proceedings 2006,
102. Electronic and Athenian Democracy, Cockshott,W.P. National E-Science Centre Workshop on e-Voting and E-Government, 2006.
103. Constraints on Hypercomputation, Michaelson, G. Cockshott, W.P. Logical Approaches to Computational Barriers Second Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2006, Swansea, UK, June 30-July 5, 2006, Proceedings Springer Verlag

and Allin Cottrell.

V Reports and non-reviewed journal papers

104. NEPAL - the New Edinburgh Persistent Algorithmic Language, in Databases, Pergamon InfoTech State of the Art report, Series 9, No 8, 299-318 January 1982, Cockshott W P.
105. Orthogonal Persistence, Ph.D. Thesis Edinburgh University, Feb 1983, Cockshott W P.
106. The Persistent Object Management System, Glasgow University Computer Science Department, Persistent Programming Research Report, 1983, Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, Morrison R.
107. PS-algol Papers Glasgow University Computer Science Department, Persistent Programming Research Report, 1983, Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, Morrison R.
108. Progress with Persistent Programming Glasgow University Computer Science Department, Persistent Programming Research Report, 1984, Atkinson M P, Bailey PJ, Chisholm K J, Cockshott W P, Morrison R.
109. CPOMS - a revised version of the persistent object management system in C, Glasgow University Computer Science Department, Persistent Programming Research Report, 1985, Brown, A. L, Cockshott W P.
110. The Persistent Store Machine, Glasgow University Computer Science Department, Persistent Programming Research Report, 1985, Cockshott W P.
111. Building a Microcomputer with associative virtual memory, Glasgow University Computer Science Department, Persistent Programming Research Report, 1985, Cockshott W P.
112. Design of Pomp, Persistent Object Management, co Processors, University of Strathclyde, Computer Science Research Report, 1988, W P Cockshott. Also presented to Australian conference on persistent object-systems, Newcastle, Australia, 1989
113. Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Economic Planning. University of Strathclyde, Computer Science Research Report, 1988, W P Cockshott. Also appeared in Journal of Future Computer Systems.
114. Towards Hardware Compilation, University of Strathclyde, Computer Science Research Reports, 1988, W P Cockshott, P W Foulk
115. A Critical Assessment of Two Non Von Neumann Architectures, University of Strathclyde, Computer Science Research Reports, 1988, W P Cockshott, P W Foulk.
116. Persistence is a Virtue, in Program now, Vol. 2 No.3, May 1988, pp.16-19, P Cockshott.
117. Data Signatures, in Program Now, Vol. 12 No.7, Sept.1988, pp. 10-15, W P Cockshott.
118. What�s in a bit, in Program Now, Vol. 2, No.6, Aug. 1988, pp. 26-29, W P Cockshott.
119. The End is in Sight, in Program Now, Vol. 2. No.8. 1988, W P Cockshott.
120. Mr. Gorbachov�s Spreadsheet, in Program Now, Vol. 2. No.9, pp. 20-24, 1988, W P Cockshott.
121. Persistent S-algol Compiler for the IBM At, Departmental report, July 1989, W P Cockshott
122. Layered Implementation of a persistent object store, Departmental Report, July 1989, W P Cockshott
123. Definition and linkage techniques for graphics abstract data types, Departmental Report October 1989 , W P Cockshott
124. Circal and quantum phenomena, Departmental report 1990 , W P Cockshott
125. Handshake Serial Logic, Departmental Report 1991, P Cockshott.
126. A parallel database programming language based on APL, Departmental Report, IKBS 5-91, August 1991.
127. Performance Evaluation of the Rekursiv Object Oriented Computer, Research Report, ARCH-8-91, W P Cockshott.
128. Use of high-speed Cellular Automata to simulate road traffic, P Barrie, P Cockshott, G McCaskill, HDV-27-93, May 1993.
129. A survey of architectures for memory resident databases, G Russell, P Cockshott, ARCH-10-93, April 1993.
130. On-Line Training by Combining Supervised and Unsupervised Learning, R Lambert, P Cockshott, R Fryer, MPRG-3-93.
131. Fast Fractal Transform Method for Data Compression, D R McGregor, R J Fryer, W P Cockshott, Research Report/94/156, April 1994.
132. Physical Realism and Formal Process Semantics, P Cockshott, P Shaw, Research Report/94/150, May 1994.
133. Implementation of Lattice Gases Using FPGAS, P Shaw, W P Cockshott, P M Barrie, Departmental Research Report 94/161 October 1994.
134. Information and Economics: A critique of Hayek, A F Cottrell, W P Cockshott, Departmental research report 94/166, October 1994.
135. Value Price Transformation as a Real Process, A F Cottrell, W P Cockshott, Departmental research report 94/167, November 1994.
136. Value�s Law Value�s Metric, A F Cottrell, W P Cockshott, Departmental research report 94/168, November 1994.
137. Vector Pascal reference manual, Cockshott,P. Sigplan Notices, Vol. 37, issue 6 pp 59-81 2002
138. The abstraction mechanisms of Vector Pascal, Cockshott,P., Vector, Vol. 18, No. 4 pp 100..112,British Computer Society, 2002.
139. F�r ett genomskinligt produktionss�tt, Cockshott,P. Cottrell,A. r�da rummet 3-02 , Manifest Bokforlag, 2002
140. Das Prinzip Gleichheit, Cockshott,P. Cottrell,A. Junge Welt, Jan 28, 2006.

Vi Other output


141. Neural Networks R. Fryer, R. Lambert and P. Cockshott British App 9307611.5, 13 April 1993, Japan 06-522895, PCT GB94/00777, 13 December 1994 (Licensed to Orange)
142. Method and Apparatus for Simulation of a physical process G. Milne/P. Cockshott US Patent 5,485,599 Granted 16 January 1996, Europe Patent 0506685 8 November 1995 States DE, FR, GB, IT, NL, US Patent granted 5,485,599.
143. Fractal Data Compression D. McGregor, P. Cockshott, R. Fryer and R. Lambert PCT/GB95/00093, 27 July 1995, UK 9401112.9, 19 January 1994, International WO 95/20296, 27 July 1995. (Licensed to Orange)
144. Error Recovery in Card Arrays P. Cockshott and G. Russell (ERCA) GB.9511403.9, 6 June 1995
145. Best First SCT D. McGregor, P. Cockshott, R. Lambert and R. Fryer UK 9522077.8, 27 October 1995,(Licensed to Orange)
146. Minimum Entropy D. McGregor and P. Cockshott BP9604522.4, 2 March 1996, International Patent WO 97/32263, 4 Sept 1997(Licensed to Planning Sciences International). US Patent 6169990
147. Array Indexing D. McGregor and P. Cockshott BP 9605853.2, Filed 20 March 1996, International Patent WO 978/35256 25 Sept 1997. (Licensed to Planning Sciences International)
148. Vector Quantization, P. Cockshott BP 9622055.3 (Licensed to Orange)
149. Flash Unit for 3D photography, Applied for in collaboration with Tim Nibblet, 1999.
150. Cardiac Imaging, Cockshott,P. Gao, G. Martin, T. Groenning, G. International Patent Application PCT/GB03/004831 2004

Published Software


PS-algol �
Vector Pascal

Scanning Microscopy Compression


Competitive Research Grants


Granted by


Held Jointly with




DTI Object Oriented Computing Initiative

PS-algol Compiler for Rekursiv object oriented computer





EPSRC GR/ F35881

Parallel Databases, project in collaboration with Edinburgh University and Trustee Savings Bank to achieve high performance relational databases. Results of this grant led on to grant J792170

Douglas McGregor
John Wilson




EPSRC GR/ J 07082

Space Machine. A cellular automata computer designed to achieve high speed simulation of physical systems.

George Milne




EPSRC GR/ J92170

Compressed Databases. Development of high performance relational database engine using data compression techniques. Subsequently patented and commercialised.

Douglas McGregor
John Wilson





Real time 3D modelling





National Escience Centre

PGP Grid

Lewis Mackenzie



Contracts from commercial firms or government departments


Agency or firm

Topic of research




Acorn Ltd.

Persistent Store Computer. Development of an experimental computer for executing persistent programming languages.




Orange Acorn (HARP1)

Video Phone. Research and development into a real-time video compressor suitable for mobile video phone use.




Planning Sciences International

Compressed Databases. Work towards the technology transfer of the IPR developed in the EPSRC grant J92170




Orange PLC (ORP1)

Audio video multiplexing




Defence Evaluation and Research Agency

3D whole body real time measurement




FreshFields Solicitors

Report on history of IBM PC architecture




Report on IBM DMA controller design




Real time stereo using FPGAs




Scottish Enterprise POC

3D Microscopy compression



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Page Editor: Information Officer
Last Update: 16 May, 2005