University of Glasgow


Computing Science
Part of the Faculty of Information and Mathematical Sciences

 My Research

Paul Cockshott's home page
Software Downloads
Bibliography on
Bibliography on Google Scholar
Bibliography on Enlighten
Profit rate calculator
 Topic Index
Computer Science
Foreign Language Papers

Join our research
I am soliciting
to do post graduate research here on any of the topics that appear on the panel to the right.
About Glasgow

Paul is a member of the  Computer Vision and Graphics group

View My Stats

W Paul Cockshott,

Computer Science

Programming Languages and Parallelism

The N-body problem in Vector Pascal, talk given at the workshop for Phase 2 of the SICSA multicore challenge.

Automatic Vectorising Compilation A talk given at Microsoft Labs (Jan 2011) describing the approach we use to data parallel compilation at Glasgow University. It covers compilation from Fortran 90 and Vector Pascal to multi-core processors both homogenous ones and heterogeneous ones like the Cell.

SICSA multicore challenge page.
Describes my entry into phase 1 of the challenge, a parallel programme to prepare concordances of text.

SICSA Benchmarks in C, talk at the SICSA Multi-core Challenge Workshop December 2010 reporting results of the challenge both on the SCC and other machines.

Challenging Multi-cores -- talk given at the Scottish Programming Languages Society in Oct 2010 on Lino and the Intel SCC processor.

Lino: a tiling language for arrays of processors   Lino is language for tiling large arrays of processor, in particular for multi-core. Lino is oriented to the coordination and communication aspects of multi-processing, and is otherwise implementation neutral, thus naturally facilitating the composition of large systems from heterogeneous software components. The need
for Lino is motivated, and Lino’s design and implementation are surveyed.

SIMD and Multi-core Parallelisation in an Imperative Language. Paper for the Advances In Programming Languages 2009 SICSA summer school. Describes the use of pure functions in an imperative language as a means to allow multi-core plus SIMD parallelism

Automatic SIMD/MIMD compilation of tensor expressions A talk to be given at the tensor seminar in Edinburgh in September 2009

Array Languages and the Challenge of Modern Computer Architecture, this reviews recent trends towards greater parallelism in processor design and argues that only array languages can meet the challenges these pose.

Final report: merging Single Assignment C and Vector Pascal technologies. Report on work done on EPSRC grant EP/D/032423/1.

Efficient compilation of array expressions Paper in the APL Quote Quad journal discussing how to compile APL like languages to vector machines.

Orthogonal Parallel Processing, a paper by Greg Michaelson and I on the technology used in Vector Pascal

The PGP grid Project. A report on JPI and on the parallelization of stereo matching.

The Jpi interface. A description of a proposed interface to GRID parallelism based on Milner's Pi Calculus.

Vector Pascal - an array language Paper for the APL2002 conference.

Vector Pascal.html, or as a pdf version. Vector Pascal is a language designed to support elegant and efficient expression of algorithms using the SIMD model of computation. It imports into Pascal features derived from the functional languages APL and J, in particular the extension of all operators to work on vectors of data. The type system is extended to handle dimensional analysis. Code generation is via the ILCG system that allows retargeting to multiple different SIMD instruction sets based on formal description of the instruction set semantics. For more details and other papers on this: see my compilers pages.

A survey of architectures for memory resident databases:arch-10-93

Compressed databases also in postscript.

Quantum Relational Databases The approach given by Grover can be generalised to set an upper complexity limit to the basic operations of relational databases on a quantum computer. Except in special cases where indices can be used on a classical machine, the quantum upper complexity limit is lower than the classical one.

Direct compilation of high level languages to multi media instruction sets. Covers use of MMX, 3DNOW and SIMD instructions to obtain parallelism. Also available as HTML

Hypercomputing  computability and philosophy

On Althusser's Philosophy of the Encounter, The article reviews Althusser’s Philosophy of the Encounter, examining in turn the problem of the Epistemological Break and the idea of matérialisme aléatoire. It looks at Althusser’s
critique of the concept of commodity fetishism and suggests a possible response. It goes on
to situate the matérialisme aléatoire in the context of the history of atomism with particular
reference to the work of Boltzmann. It provides a possible technique of both rejecting teleology
and retaining the arrow of time.

What is so Real about the Reals -- talk about the real numbers given at the Computer Science Dept April 2010
Computation and its Limits Work in progress with Greg and Lewis.

Non-classical computing: feasible versus infeasible
Physics sets certain limits on what is and is not computable. These limits are very far from having been reached by current technologies. Whilst proposals for hypercomputation are almost certainly infeasible, there are a number of non classical approaches that do hold considerable promise. There are a range of possible architectures that could be implemented on silicon that are distinctly different from the von Neumann model. Beyond this, quantum simulators, which are the quantum equivalent of analogue computers, may be constructable in the near future. Slides to accompany the talk.

A Hardware Relaxation Paradigm for Solving NP-Hard Problems Digital circuits with feedback loops can solve some instances of NP-hard problems
by relaxation: the circuit will either oscillate or settle down to a stable state that represents a solution to the problem instance. This approach differs from using hardware accelerators to speed up the execution of deterministic algorithms, as it exploits stabilisation properties of circuits with feedback, and it allows a variety of hardware techniques that do not have counterparts in software. A feedback circuit that solves many instances of Boolean satisfiability problems is described, with experimental results from a preliminary simulation using a hardware accelerator.

To Infinity and Beyond, joint paper with Greg Michaelson and Lewis Mackenzie,
Many attempts to transcend the fundamental limitations to computability implied by the Halting Problem for Turing Machines depend on the use of forms of hypercomputation that draw on notions of infinite or continuous, as opposed to bounded or discrete, computation. Thus, such schemes may include the deployment of actualised rather than potential infinities of physical resources, or of physical representations of real numbers to arbitrary precision. Here, we argue that such bases for hypercomputation are not materially realisable and so cannot constitute new forms of effective calculability. A slightly amended version of this has now appeared in the journal Theoretical Computer Science A.

Cantor diagonalisation and planning, by Greg Michaelson, Allin Cottrell and Paul Cockshott
Murphy (2006) recently argued that one could use the diagonal argument of the number theorist Cantor to elucidate issues that arose in the socialist calculation debate of the 1930s. We will here argue that Murphy's argument has certain problems, both at the number-theoretic level and from the standpoint of economic realism.

Are there new models of computation, an essay with Greg Michaelson arguing against recent proposals for super Turing computation. A slightly amended version of this has now appeared in the Computer Journal.

Boettke Syntax and the Turing Test, a reply by Greg Michaelson, Allin Cottrell and I to a paper on Methodology by Boettke which he published in Cahiers D'Epistemolgie.

Information, Work, and Meaning an introduction to information theory by me and Greg Michaelson, it relationship to thermodynamics and to classical political economy with particular emphasis on how it applies to industrial mass production.

Image processing

Von Neumann to Bloom: useful techniques with vector spaces, a seminar for post-grad students showing how use of vector spaces spans image processing, information retrieval, and economic growth theory.

Vector Quantisation Based Image Enhancement, Describes how to scale up digital cine images to twice the original size, adding plausible fine detail.

Applying the Grid to 3D capture technology Paper on the use of networks of machines to process 3D TV information.

The use of Image Algebra Paper that addresses the use of Image Algebra as a foundation for image processing in the context of the IP -Racine project. Provides a general introduction to Image Algebra for those unfamiliar to it.

CONFOCAL MICROSCOPIC IMAGE SEQUENCE COMPRESSION USING VECTOR QUANTIZATION AND 3D PYRAMIDS. Paper on the technique developed by Yegang Tao and I to efficiently encode microscope images for web distribution.

Experimental 3D TV studio, appeared in IEE Computer Vision and Graphics, 2003.


A Resolution Independent Image Representation for Digital Cinema, standard approaches to image and movie representation are proving inadequate in the context of digital cinema. In particular, the use of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), as found in popular video formats, results in visual artifacts that are unacceptable to the movie industry. This describes a novel type of image and movie representation designed to allow resolution-independent manipulation and achieve perceptually lossless compression.
Optimal rate control for compressed video. Looks at algorithm based on economic pricing theory to improve quality of compressed video. A demonstration of this is available.

Fast Fractal Transform Method for Data Compression : rr-156-94 Describes an improved algorithm that speeds up fractal image compression by 3 orders of magnitude. Allows fractal compression of 512x512 24 bit colour images in less than 20 seconds. Published in Dr Dobbs Journal #243

Algorithm for the fast construction of codebooks for hierarchical vector quantization We present a recursive algorithm designed to construct quantization tables and codebooks for the hierarchical vector quantization of images. The algorithm is computationally inexpensive and yields high quality codebooks. hvq/codebooks.html

A review of the image compression work that I was involved in at the University of Strathclyde.

Experimental computers

Space Machine

space machine overview
Overview of the Space Machine a FPGA computer I designed to execute cellular automata. The machine was extensible to form a large 2D array using the blue link ports that would connect to other boards.
Closeup showing the INMOS Transputer that acted as the controll and configuration processor and the link hardware that could be used to feed information into the FPGA array from the transputer.

Realising massively concurrent systems on the Space Machine : hdv-29-93
A description of the Space Machine and its use.

Use of high speed cellular automata to simulate road traffic : hdv-27-93 A presentation of how the space machine can be applied to road traffic simulation.

The Poppy

Building a microcomputer with associative virtual memory, this describes the Poppy a 64 bit address space workstation I designed and built at Glasgow University in 1985 with funding from Acorn to support persistent programming languages.  During the 1980s  I worked on persistent programming - the idea of having a programming language in which the variables and heap are preserved over successive invocations of the programme. The machine had a memory management unit specifically tailored to persistent object oriented programming, and mapped active pages to battery backed ram chips for transactional reliability.

overview of poppy computer
Overview of the whole Poppy computer
Motherboard, DRAM bank at right, battery backed SRAM at back
processor chips
The NS32000 microprocessor and associative string match processor
Closeup of the stable cache, with a 10 year retention period. There was provision for fitting more than 128K of stable cache.


Leadership Democracy and Transitions.  Verbatim transcript of a talk given at the Workers Educational Association in Stockholm in Nov 2010, covering the ideas of direct democracy in the early Social Democratic movement and how these were lost during the 20th century and the catastrophic effect this had in countries like Russia. My thanks to Joonas Laine for recording and transcribing the talk. See also the SLIDES which went with the talk.

Extending Electronic Democracy to cover Budget decisions. A paper that describes how multidimensional decisions about taxes and expenditure can be decided in a consistent and secure way using mobile phone votes. There is a growing realisation that the populace need to be consulted on a more regular basis about issues that concern them. We address a particular economic problem, that of national budgeting, and show how digital technology can be applied in an understandable way in this domain. The current situation is that governments are reluctant to conduct plebiscites due to the expenses inherent in the traditional voting model. Handivote is a system which allows maximal participation, using a ubiquitous input mechanism, the mobile phone, to support decision-making. In this paper we show how the Handivote system could be extended to invite voter input into national economic decisions. Our proposal includes an algorithm which maximises voter satisfaction in the presence of budgetary constraints, and the preferences revealed by the vote. Slides for the talk.

Art Exhibition containing work from me

front page of serbian exhibition


 a couple of posters based on selections from articles I have written that were exhibited by the Serbian artist Aleksandar Dimitrijevic at an exhibition in Belgrade 19th October 2010.

Poster 1

Poster 2

Leadership Concepts and Democracy  A draft book chapter to be translated into Spanish. It deals with the history of ideas of leadership in the socialist movement from the critical standpoint of participatory democracy.

ELECTRONIC PLEBISCITES Paper with Karen Renaud, We suggest a technology and set of procedures by which a major democratic de?cit of modern society can be addressed. The mechanism, whilst it makes limited use of cryptographic techniques in the background, is based around objects and procedures with which voters are currently familiar. We believe that systems like this hold considerable potential for the extension of democratic participation and control.

Electronic and Athenian Democracy, paper given at the Workshop on e-Voting and e-Government in the UK, Feb 2006.


Paul Cockshott - Babbage to Marx to Boltzmann

Talk on Towards A New Socialism

Talk on Towards and Equivalence Economy


Talk on democracy given in Sweden in Nov 2010, this zip archive includes the audio as an mp3 plus the transcript of the audio as a pdf.
Debate with Francis Spufford
this is a recording of a discussion with  Professor Francis Spufford at the Edinburgh Book Festival in 2010 associated with the launch of his book Red Plenty about Soviet Cybernetics. The podcast starts with an introduction by the science fiction author Ken Macleod, and then Francis speaks and then me ( for those who do not recognise our voices).
My review of his book is here.
My theoretical discussion of Kantorovich and Soviet cybernetics is in
Mises, Kantorovich and Economic Computation .

Childrens Stories as they were actually told in Jan-Feb 2009  -- the Inspector McTaggart Series



Uusi sosialismi

Paul Cockshott and Allin Cottrell present a new alternative to the capitalist market economy. The book explains how millions of different products in the manufacturing of society can be designed without having to resort to capitalist markets and bureaucratic arbitrariness. Direct democratic planned economy, based on their use of a working hours based   valuation system,  super computers and networks.

 Originally published in English in 1993, the book has since been translated into Swedish (2002), Czech (2006) in German (2006), Spanish (2007) and Russian (2007). Sosialismi.netin now publish the Finnish-language edition which includes the original book in addition to an updated version of chapter 15, in 2008, written to the additional figures in the socialist calculation debate (Chapter 16), and socialism, the transition (Chapter 17), as well as  a translation of the Czech language   foreword.

Arguments for Socialism
Arguments for Socialism
This book is made up of a collection of polemical articles written by us over the period since the fall of ‘die Mauer’ and the crisis of the European socialist movement brought on in its wake. They record an attempt to argue through the theoretical challenges that this period has posed:

* Why did both Leninist communism and Social Democracy come to crisis?
* What were the economic weaknesses of both and what economic policy should a future socialist movement adopt to overcome these?
Link to PDF version
eu am ende book
EU Am Ende
A book on the Euro crisis in German of which I am co author
                                pascal compiler Glasgow Pascal Compiler with Vector Extensions
This book is a manual for the Glasgow Pascal compiler, decribing both the standard features of Pascal and the Vector Extensions that allow efficient parallel processing on modern multi-core chips.
computation and its limits cover
Computation and its Limits

The book is an innovative cross-disciplinary investigation of the relationship between computing and physical reality. It starts off investigating the mystery of why mathematics is so effective in science and seeks to explain this in terms of the modelling of one part of physical reality by another. Going from the origins of counting to the most blue-skies proposals for novel methods of computation the authors investigate the extent to which the laws of nature and of logic constrain what we can compute. In the process they examine formal computability, the thermodynamics of computation and the promise of quantum computing. ( in press with OUP)

Classical Econophysics: essays in thermodynamics, information theory and political economy
A book which examines the domain of classical political economy using the methodologies developed in recent years both by the new discipline of econo-physics and by computing science. The book begins by examining the most basic feature of economic life   production   and asks what it is about physical laws that allows production to take place. How is it that human labour is able to modify the world? It looks at the role that information has played in the process of mass production and the extent to which human labour still remains a key resource. The Ricardian labour theory of value is re-examined in the light of econophysics, presenting agent based models in which the Ricardian theory of value appears as an emergent property. The authors present models giving rise to the class distribution of income, and the long term evolution of profit rates in market economies.
Simd Programming
Simd Programming Manual for Linux and Windows
A book on programming for the SIMD instructionsets of modern processors. It looks at theese architectures and gives examples in Vector Pascal, a language that I developed for high performance image processing.
Transition to socialism in the EU
Transition to 21st century socialism in the European Union
A book based on a socialist ecconomic response to the credit crisis that was put forward at a conference in Berlin in Feb 2010

Towards a New Socialism

EPUB format

English Edition of a book that has subsequently appeared in several languages (below). It examines the extent to which modern super computer technology allows both an efficient system of planned economy and enhanced democratic control of society using electronic voting.
Note that the EPUB format is a relatively innacurate conversion from the original latex

Spanish translation published in Venezuela.

К новому социализму Russian translation, currently on the web, probably due for publication.

The full text of the Czech edition of our book with the long extended introduction we wrote for this edition.

Sozialismus ist machbar Extended German translation of Towards a New Socialism, containing the Czech introduction. This includes certain chapters elided from the German edition published by Papyrossa ( shown in picture).
Planhushållning och direktdemokrati
 Denna bok, skriven av en nationalekonom och en datorforskare, visar inte bara att ett annat sätt är möjligt - den visar också hur det rent konkret kan förverkligas med hjälp av modern datakraft och det nätverksbyggande som brutit igenom i vår tid.

PS-Algol Implementations
Describes implementation techniques for the persistent programming language PS-algol.

A Compiler Writer's Toolbox Interactive Compilers for PCs With Turbo Pascal
A textbook on compiler construction showing how to build high speed interactive compilers after the idiom of the Borland compilers. The example compiler is an implementation of PS-algol. The web link is to a version of the book used as teaching notes here.

Online Economics Papers

Conservation laws, financial entropy and the Eurozone crisis, with Dave Zachariah,
The report attempts of apply econophysics concepts to the Eurozone crisis. It starts by examining the idea of conservation laws as applied to market economies. It formulates a measure of financial entropy and gives numerical simulations indicating that this tends to rise. We discuss an analogue for free energy released during this process. The concepts of real and symbolic appropriation are introduced as a means to analyse debt and taxation. We then examine the conflict between the conservation laws that apply to commodity exchange with the exponential growth implied by capital accumulation and how these have necessitated a sequence of evolutionary forms for money, and go on to present a simple stochastic model for the formation of rates of interest and a model for the time evolution of the rate of profit.

Finally we apply the conservation law model to examining the Euro Crisis and the European Stability pact, arguing that if the laws we hypothesise actually hold, then the goals of the stability pact are unobtainable.

Defence of Empirical Evidence: draft reply to Shimshon Bichler and Jonathan Nitzan in response to their criticisms of our previous work in their book Capital as Power. It summarises the reasons why the observed empirical data tend to validate the theory that labour time is the source of exchange value.

Testing the labour theory of value : an exchange
An exchange with
Shimshon Bichler and Jonathan Nitzan stemming from an open letter originally posted by Stefanos Kourkoulakos regarding the conference Crisis of Capital, Crisis of Theory held at York University Canada.

Methods of modelling in the light of information theory and entropy, a paper prepared for the conference Nuevos paradigmas en la economía y ciencias sociales del Siglo XXI , to be held in Mexico City, October 2010 ( link disabled whilst paper is reviewed). Power point presentation slides here.

CREDIT CRUNCH: ORIGINS AND ORIENTATION PAUL COCKSHOTT AND DAVE ZACHARIAH , an article which looks at the causes of the credit crisis and how  economic policy should respond to it. 

Supplementary chapters for the draft French edition of Towards a New Socialism. These chapters were written in 2008 for a proposed French edition, but the French publisher withdrew after we had written the chapters. Since the chapters relate to general updateing of the work, and as such may be of interest to English language readers, I have made them available here.

Hilbert Space Models Commodity Exchanges Abstract. It is argued that the vector space measures used to mea- sure closeness of market prices to predictors for market prices are invalid because of the observed metric of commodity space. An alternative representation in Hilbert space within which such measures do apply is proposed. It is shown that commodity exchanges can be modeled by the application of unitary operators to this space.

Information and mass production
Babbage to Boltzman

Information theory whilst it grew out of the needs of the telecoms industry, was built on foundations provided by 19th century thermodynamics. Its domain of application has over the years been seen to widen. This talk shows how information theory helps us understand the key processes that made the industrial revolution possible, by examining the close connection between entropy,  information and the technologies of mass production.

Ambedcar, Baudrillard, Buddhism and Socialism An extended introduction to a proposed Indian edition of Towards a New Socialism that attempts to situate our work with respect to the Buddhist Socialism of the famous Dalit leader and intellectual Ambedcar.

Mises, Kantorovich and Economic Computation An article that reviews the work of Kantorovich in the light of von Mises claim that rational calculations were impossible without markets. It gives a tutorial introduction to the use of Kantorovich's methods, compares his approach to that of Dantzig. An assesment is given of the extent to which new interior point methods of linear programming strengthen or weaken Kantorovich's claims.Russian edition available as In Natura Calculation from Neurath to Kantorovich (   Расчёт в натуральной форме, от Нейрата до Канторовича ).

21st Century Marxism it was written for Junge Welt, a German left daily, in advance of a Berlin conference on Marxism for the 21st Century

Cantor Diagonalisation and Planning,Murphy (2006) recently argued that one could use the diagonal argument of the number theorist Cantor to elucidate issues that arose in the socialist calculation debate of the 1930s. We will here argue that Murphy's argument has certain problems, both at the number theoretic level and from the standpoint of economic realism.

Boettke Syntax and the Turing Test, a reply by Greg Michaelson, Allin Cottrell and I to a paper on Methodology by Boettke which he published in Cahiers D’Epistemolgie. Boettke is a prominent economist of the Austrian school.

Computers and the Economic Calculation Debate, talk given in Jan 2006 in Berlin.

Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Economic Planning (pdf), HTML version, Paper dates from the early 1990s but was recently OCRed by Helmut Dunkhase to make it accessible over the web.

Information, Work, and Meaning an introduction to information theory by me and Greg Michaelson, it relationship to thermodynamics and to classical political economy with particular emphasis on how it applies to industrial mass production.

What is at stake in the debate on value ( pdf version ). '> html version. Paper outlines the empirical data on correlations between labour values and prices and discusses various objections that have been raised in the literature to these.

Demography and long term profit rates We discuss the original formulation of the theory of the falling rate of profit by Marx and the criticisms of the theory’s micro-foundations by Roemer. We then counterpose to this an alternative macroeconomic interpretation in which the falling rate of profit is driven by demographic factors. We follow this up with an examination of why the assumptions made in Roemer’s analysis are empirically unjustified. In particular we criticize his use of the average rate of profit rather than the monetary interest rate as the regulator of investment decisions. We conclude with an examination of the social implications of a declining rate of profit.

Reflections on economic democracy, paper that is appearing in Research in Political Economy

A Note on the Significance of the Standard Commodity in Sraffa's System, a joint paper with Ajit Sinha. The paper discusses the role of the Standard Commodity as a numeraire. We argue that the heart of Sraffa’s motivation for introducing the Standard Commodity was the dependence of relative prices on technical conditions in the basic sector. We show, by constructing a large class of worked examples that the direction of price movements under technical change will be dependent on the numeraire. If the choice of numeraire is arbitrary then so are the relative movement directions of prices under technical change. Joint.pdf, Pretty print output of a program to evaluate the hypothesis that the direction of movement of a commodities price under technical change can be dependent on the numeraire. This is the program used to evaluate the hypothesis discussed above. The Vector Pascal source of the program is available as Joint.pas

Symmetries and exchange relations, Exploration of how to use metric space theory to develop the chartalist theory of money.

Hunting productive work. The paper, jointly with Dave Zacharaih summarises the definitions of productive labour derived from Smith and Marx. It attempts to develop a more general definition deriving from Sraffa's standard commodity and the theory of relative surplus value. The implications of the new definition for the examination of highly socialised capitalist economies like Sweden are examined. .

Vector Space Metrics in Economics. Argues that capitalist economic activity can be modeled by rotation operators acting on a Hilbert space.

The organic composition of capital and profit rates, Appeared 2003 in Cambridge Journal of Economics. Shows that industries with high organic composition have low profit rates. The source data for this is available to others as a spreadsheet ,that shows the rates of profit by industry for the USA in 1987, against the organic composition of capital for these industries. It shows, that counter to expectation, industries with a high organic composition of capital have a low rate of profit and vice versa. The spreadsheet is an excel one.

The Scientific Status of the Labour Theory of Value, a paper which uses Chaitin Kolmogorov complexity theory to evaluate the accuracy of the predictions of different economic theories of valuee.

Value, markets and socialism Examines the very limited role for markets in a socialist economy and the different form of appearance that value ( abstract labour ) has in such an economy.

Value's Law Value's Metric: RR-94-168 An investigation into the metric space generated by commodity exchange. Provides empirical data comparing labour and electricity as the possible supports for this metric space.

Notes on Dynamic Value (pdf version) An attempt to come up with a simultaneist value theory that handles fixed capital and technical change.

The declining rate of profit and technical change an examination of the effect of moral depreciation on profit rates. An version in postscript is also available.

Testing Marx: Some new results from UK data This paper was published in the Spring 1995 edition of Capital and Class. It covers among other topics the degree to which industrial output prices in the UK correspond to those predicted by labour values. Corrections to the data originally published.

Value price transformation as a real process : rr-167-94 Published as "Does Marx Need to Transform?", by Allin Cottrell and Paul Cockshott for a conference on the centenary of the publication of Volume 3 of Marx's Capital, which took place in Bergamo in December 1994. The paper argues, on an empirical basis, that actual prices fall somewhere between the untransformed labor values of Capital, Volume 1, and the prices of production discussed by Marx in Volume 3.

Information and economics A critique of Hayek : rr-166-94 Written jointly with Allin Cottrell, looks at the concept of information as presented by Hayek and compares it with that used in modern information theory. It questions the extent to which Hayeks economic conclusions are sustainable on information theoretic grounds. Russian edition     Information and economics, ( Информация и экономика: критика Хайека)
An extended and updated version of this paper was  produced in 2007 that  reinforced the original conclusions with recent results in economic computability theory.

"Calculation, Complexity and Planning: The Socialist Calculation Debate Once Again," by Allin Cottrell and Paul Cockshott, published in ROPE, summer 1993. We present a counter-argument against Mises' charge that rational economic calculation is impossible under socialism (a charge recently revived by Don Lavoie). The paper also considers other contributors to the Socialist Calculation Debate, such as Oskar Lange.

"Socialist Planning after the Collapse of the Soviet Union", by Allin Cottrell and Paul Cockshott, published in Revue Europeene des Sciences Sociales, 1993. We make the argument that what failed in the USSR was not socialist planning as such, but a particular and definitely flawed variant of same, and suggest the outlines of an alternative system of planning. The paper is complementary to our 1993 book, "Towards a New Socialism."

Realisation Crises and the Polarisation of Capital:cse-02-93 pdf version

Foreign Language Papers


金 融危机的根源与对策  "The root causes of the financial crisis and countermeasures", translation of the paper 'Credit Crunch, origins and orientations', listed above in the English language sections. Chinese Abstract reads: 摘要:美 刊《科学与社会》2010年7月号刊登了保罗·考克夏特和戴夫·扎卡里亚题为 《信用恐慌:起源与对策》的文章。作者通过回顾 20世纪资本主义的演变史,认 为新自由主义向食利者利益的倾斜导致经济中非生产性部门和人员越来越膨胀是金融兴盛也是其危机的根源。而当 今金融系统发挥了封建社会封建贵族和神职人员的 作用,通过它社会的积蓄越来越多地分配给银行家、空军战机和士兵,而使社会贫困化。世界人口红利正在消失也 是资本主义这种靠利润驱动的生产方式难以继续维 系的重要原因。作者提出了废除不公正的债务、取消剥削和投资社会化等应对战略。文章内容如下。


Ajatuksia johtajuudesta ja demokratiasta julkaisee   Paul Cockshottin Tukholman Socialistiskt Forumissa 27.11.2010 pitämän esitelmän, jonka otsikkona oli Ideas of Leadership and Democracy (Ajatuksia johtajuudesta ja demokratiasta). Esitelmän alkuosa käsittelee vasemmiston perinteisiä demokratiakäsityksiä sekä tavoitteita parlamentaarisesta tasavallasta ja neuvostotasavallasta, ja hylkää molemmat suoran demokratian hyväksi. Esitelmän jälkimmäinen osa käsittelee konkreettisia esityksiä sosialismiin siirtymisen ensimmäisistä askelista, ja loppuosassa Cockshott vastailee yleisön kysymyksiin

2000-luvun marxilaisuus  Skotlantilainen taloustieteilijä ja tietojenkäsittelytieteen professori (Reader) Paul Cockshott vaatii työväenliikettä kohtaamaan oikeiston talousopit silmästä silmään ja kehittämään niiden haastajaksi omista luokkaeduistaan ponnistavaa teoriaa 1800-luvulla kehitetyn poliittisen taloustieteen pohjalta. Cockshottin mukaan tähän tehtävään kuuluu myös sen kuvaaminen, miten tulevaisuuden sosialistinen talousjärjestelmä on tarkoitus järjestää. On irtauduttava Länsi-Euroopan marxilaisuudelle tyypillisestä spekulatiivis-filosofisesta menetelmästä ja hyödynnettävä muun muassa tilastollisen mekaniikan ja laskettavuuden teorian kaltaisia tieteenhaaroja sosialistista suunnitelmataloutta hahmoteltaessa.


Die Technik des Sozialismus existiert  Title given by the editors of Junge Welt to the printed edition a talk I gave in Berlin.

Oberhand gewinnen Der Kapitalismus verfügt über theoretische Grundlagen, die ihn bis heute zusammenhalten. Die Arbeiterklasse kann daher nur revolutionär sein, wenn sie eine politische Ökonomie der zukünftigen Gesellschaft entwickelt

Unerwartete Quelle Die Physik bestätigt den Marxismu Short article describing how the Gibbs Boltzman distribution of money derives from work of Yakovenko, and how statistical mechanics approaches give the same general predictions as the Adam Smith/Karl Marx theory of price.

Steuern für den Sozialismus Article on tax policy in Venezuela. It focuses on the limits to funding internal expenditure from dollar revenues for oil sales without an adequate internal tax base. Particular focus is paid to the conflict between attempting to maintain exchange controls and attempting to control Bolivar inflation when running a current account surplus. The exchange controls are there to prevent expatriation of revenue by the rich. The article argues that it would be better to have an effective tax on property incomes.

Zeit statt Geld Article on the problem of inflation in Venezuela and review of proposals for monetary reform in that country.

Ökonomisches Übergangsprogramm zum Sozialismus des 21. Jahrhunderts in der Europäischen Union Dieser programmatische Artikel versucht die wirtschaftlichen Schritte zu skizzieren, die notwendig wären, um eine kapitalistische Wirtschaft wie die der EU in eine sozialistische zu überführen. Wir untersuchen das Problem anhand sehr anschaulicher Begrifflichkeiten und schlagen gezielte politische Maßnahmen vor. Diese Maßnahmen unterscheiden sich deutlich von der Tradition der Europäischen Sozialdemokratie des 20. Jahrhunderts.


Új szocializmus felé  This is a Hungarian introduction to the book 'Towards a New Socialism'. As far as I know the introduction is the only part of the book translated into Hungarian. The translation appears to date from 2006.


  Електронска и атинска демократија Electronic and Athenian Democracy
  Говор на Пол Кокшот во Стокхолм за директната демократија и економија во социјализм Ideas of Democracy
 Against Nationalism 
Против национализмот   Was also published in the newspaper Време - Дома

Venezuela and New Socialism  

   Венецуела и Новиот социјализам (интегрална верзија)

Economic planning, computers and labor values (Part One)

Економско планирање, компјутери и трудови вредности (прв дел)

 ТРАНЗИЦИЈА КОН СОЦИЈАЛИЗАМ НА 21-от ВЕКВО ЕВРОПСКАТА УНИЈА� Transition to 21st century socialism in the EU
 CREDIT CRUNCH: ORIGINS AND ORIENTATION    Кредитна криза: Потекла и ориентација- [ Translate this page ]
  Демократија и парламентаризам Democracy and Parliamentarianism Published in the Newspaper Време - Дома


Gain Advantage ( Title translated from the Persian ) Persian translation of the German Paper which first appeared as Oberhand Gewinnen below.


Jak wspóczesna zyka udowadnia marksistowsk teori wartoci? Polish translation of the paper that originally appeared in German as Unerwartete Quelle Die Physik bestätigt den Marxismus . It covers the relationship between thermodynamics and the theory of value.
W kierunku Nowego Socjalizmu, chapter from the book edited by Ressler that is based on the transcript an interview that I gave with the editor.


Revisão: O desenvolvimento do pensamento económico socialista, this is a review I did of Maurice Dobbs book 'The Development of Socialist Economic Thought'.


 These are articles or papers of mine that have been reproduced and translated on Russian language web sites. Thanks to Yuriy Zhilovets and Sergei Markoff among others for being so kind as to translate these..

LAS COMPUTADORAS Y LA DEMOCRACIA ECONOMICA, paper given at conference in Quito 2003, subsequently extended for publication in Revista de Economia Institutional in 2008 also in English as Computers and Economic Democracy.
Los Plebiscitos electrónicos a talk based on work by Karen Renaud and I that was given at a seminar in Barquisimeto in Venezuala in 2007. English version
Las ideas importantes del socialismo de siglo xxi Presents the ideas of an economy of equivalence and participatory democracy with particular focus on Mexico using economic examples from that country.


DE STORA SPRŎGEN An article examing capital accumulation in Britain since the late 19th century and the implications this has for China. Published in the Swedish journal Clarte An English language draft is available here and has now appeared in English in the Bulletin of Political Economy.
För ett genomskinligt produktionssätt - W Paul Cockshott & Allain Cottrell röda rummet 3-02 PDF version

Assorted other papers are available on the Reality web site.


[top of page]

Page Editor: Information Officer
Last Update: 16 May, 2005